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Fenimore Cooper's intention to visit Germany is already fixed in a letter to Robert R. Hunter dated from September, 13th 1829, written in Sorrento, Italy. In this letter our author remarks:
In December we shall go to Rome where we have not yet been. We shall leave Rome early in the spring, pass by Venice, Innspruck, Munich, Ratisbonne, Vienna and Prague to Dresden where I hope to pass the next summer (...) We are not yet determined what to do after Dresden. (...) We expect to pass a year in Germany.1
After the stays in Rome and in Venice the whole company consisting of the Fenimore Cooper family with their children, nephew William and servants, crossed the Alps in May 1830 via the Brenner Pass and via Innsbruck . About this town the author wrote:
Passed the nights of the 10th & 11th May in this town. Valley very pretty, though much inferior to those of Switzerland. The mountains were covered with snow, that fell on the 11th. We went to see the chateau of Ambras. The views of the mountain on the 13th in going to Bavaria, very beautiful. Inn. Soleil d'or. Good, clean and simple (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
This information about the hotel can be verified by the following passage that I found in the Intelligenz-Blatt zum Kaiserlich Königlich privilegierten Bothen von und für Tirol und Vorarlberg from May, 17th 1830, in the section for arriving travelers:
Hr. Cooper, amerikanischer Kapitän (in der gold. Sonne).
Translation: Mr. Cooper, American Captain (in the gold. Sonne).
So there exists a document that confirms the stay of the traveling Americans in the hotel Goldene Sonne/Soleil d'Or in Innsbruck. But which route did they take to arrive in Munich on the morning of the 14th? Hugh MacDougall in "Where was James" supposes that they took the route via Kufstein.2 The author himself says in the last paragraph of Gleanings in Europe: Italy:
We are now at a stand. Vienna is on our right, Switzerland on our left, and the last pass of the Alpes is before us. Examining the map, I see the "Isar rolling rapidly", Munich and a wide field of Germany in the latter direction, and it has been decided to push forward as far as Saxony and Dresden before we make another serious halt.3
The route via Kufstein has no pass, it follows the river Inn and turns north to Rosenheim and from there to Munich. There are some small mountains or rather hills on this route but no real pass. If we consider this and if we consider too that the route via Kufstein is longer than that directly north—via Seefeld, Scharnitz, Mittenwald, Walchensee, Kochelsee and Wolfratshausen—and that there is a pass, the Seefelder Sattel (1185 m) immediately behind the Zirler Berg coming from Innsbruck,4 and if we consider furthermore that this route follows the banks of the Isar for quite a distance, then we may suppose that the carriage with the Fenimore Cooper family took this route to enter Bavaria in the morning of the 14th of May 1830, "having travelled all night" (L&J, I, 414).5 (Distance Innsbruck-Munich ca. 150 km/93 miles)
The company spent two days in Munich and James bought, as Beard tells us, the Manuel pour les Voyageurs en Allemagne et dans les Pays Limitrophes by Julius Bernhard Engelmann und Heinrich August Ottokar Reichard, Frankfurt 1827 (Beard; L&J, I, 439). This book provides the reader with concise information about many cities in Germany and its neighboring countries; furthermore, it contains details of the known baths, a voyage following the Danube, a voyage along the Rhine, some mountain travels and the connections from one city to another via coach.
Long before the world-wide known Karl Baedeker (1801-1859) published his famous travel books, those written by Heinrich August Ottokar Reichard (1751-1828) were well known and used throughout Germany.
Among many other works (he published some small poetical works, Reichard translated books from French, he was engaged for several years in the theatre in Gotha and in a Freemason's lodge, he published with others the Gothaische Gelehrte Zeitungen, the Nouveau Mercure de France and other periodicals) in 1784 he published by Weigand in Leipzig the Handbuch für Reisende aus allen Ständen.6 This book represents one of the first of what were then modern travel guides and was distributed all over Europe during the first half of the 19th century. In France the travel books from Reichard were so famous that the word Guide Reichard (English: Reichard's Guide) is today still used as a generic term for travel guides.7 This Handbuch was translated into French and in 1793 published in two volumes in Weimar. It was edited several times in the following years in French and in German.8 The book inspired J. B. Engelmann to his Taschenbuch für Reisende durch Deutschland und die angränzenden Länder, Frankfurt, Wilmans, published in 1807, 1821 and 1826. It was published at first in the name of Engelmann alone, in the second edition Reichard supported him and in the third edition the name of Reichard was added as co-author.9 This edition was translated by Reichard himself into French in 182710 a copy of which the American traveler bought in Munich.
Back to Fenimore Cooper: Our author wrote little notes about the places that he and his family visited into this book. About Munich, for example, he wrote:
Reached Munich at 9 o'clock on the morning of the 14th [13th?] May, having travelled all night. One of the handsomest cities we have seen. The new parts resembling an American town. Gallery superb and Egina Marbles beautiful. Staid here the 13 and 14th starting for Saxony on the morning of the 15th May 1830. Inn: Cerf d'or—dear and not very good (Beard, L&J, I, 414).11
The remark about "the new parts resembling an American town" shows his interest in town planning and the development of towns; the "Egina Marbles" however, named in the "Gallery," refers to the pediment sculptures of a temple from the Greek island Aegina, which have been displayed in the Glyptothek in Munich since 1827, the only museum in the world that is solely dedicated to antique sculptures.
Aegina lies just a few sea miles away from Piraeus, the port of Athens. (...) Around 510 BC, the people of Aegina began to build a new temple in their most important sanctuary complex, which was dedicated to the time-honoured local goddess, Aphaia. The work began with the west façade. It ended 10 to 20 years later with the east side. The limestone building was decorated with sculptures made of Parian marble. Both pedimental groups dealt with the Trojan Wars: the west side showed the conflict that Homer also described in his Iliad. The east side, on the other hand, depicted another battle for the town, which according to myth had taken place a generation beforehand.
(...) The pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Aphaia were discovered in April 1811 by a group of German and English explorers. A year later, Martin von Wagner was able to purchase them by auction for the Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig. They have been standing in the Glyptothek since 1827.12
The fact that the Fenimore Cooper family, being absolute strangers in Germany, visited the Glyptothek during their stay of only two days in Munich shows that our author used the Manual of Engelmann/Reichard intensely. About Munich the book reads as follows:
Nice capital of the kingdom of Bavaria upon Iser. 300 m; 60.000 h. King's palace where you adore the marvelous salon named the salon of the emperors and the superbe marble staircase. Glyptothek of the royal prince with its artistic treasures.14
He uses the travel book for information about the touristic locations of his journey and he fills it with remarks about the places that he had already read about in the book.
From the Glyptothek in Munich I received information that there is no record in existence about the visit of the traveling American family during that time frame. Instead, they told me that the opening of the museum took place on October 13th, 1830 and Fenimore Cooper and his family may have had a chance to visit it before the official opening, which was not very unusual.15
From Munich the journey continued to Landshut, a town north of Munich which at that time, according to Engelmann/Reichard, had about 10,000 inhabitants: (Distance Munich-Landshut: 72 km/45 miles). Fenimore Cooper wrote:
Staid there the night of 16th [15th?] May 1830. Inn. Prince Royal, simple and pretty good—The town is pretty and clean, with a romantic castle on a hill. The church has an immensely high tower (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
The information about the "romantic castle", the "immensely high tower", and the hotel "Prince-Royal" can be specifically found in the Manual of Engelmann/Reichard:
King's Palace, castle of Trausnitz (...) Church of St. Martin with its tower, height of 456 feet (...) Inn. au Soleil d'or; au Coq; au Prince Royal.16
In the Landshut Weekly Paper (Landshuter Wochenblatt) from May, 23rd, 1830 there is a remark about the traveling American family, which states that "Mr. Cooper from America together with his family and servants" stayed in the hotel Zum Kronprinzen/Au Prince Royal the May, 15th 1830.17 In the paper the author's name is spelled "Corper"; this surely is a mistake made by the journalist or by the typesetter.
With this document, Beard's supposition of the exact dates of Fenimore Coopers travel to Dresden can be validated.18
The next stop of their travel was the City of Regensburg or in the old English name, Ratisbon (Distance: 65 km/40 miles).
Staid here the night of 16th May 1830. Inn—Golden cross, dear and not very good, but clean—The town is old, mean, and dull. The room in which the Diet sat simple and very German. The Danube, about as wide as the Mohawk at Schenectady, though divided by islands. Bridge long and massive (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
In this brief remark about the town of Regensburg you can extract three different aspects: Firstly, the true American James Fenimore Cooper as a lover of nature compares the landscape with his own home region. In this case he compares the river Danube with the Mohawk River. Secondly, the sentence "The room in which the Diet sat" shows that the American traveler was apparently also interested in the political and historical circumstances of his travel destination. This little note refers to the room where the perpetual Diet of Regensburg (Immerwährender Reichstag) convened, which took place in Regensburg between 1663 and 1806:
The Perpetual Diet of Regensburg or the Eternal Diet of Regensburg (German: Immerwährender Reichstag) was a permanent Imperial Diet (Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1663 to 1806 seated in Regensburg in present-day Germany. Previously, the Diet had convened in different cities but, beginning in 1594, it met in the town hall in Regensburg. (...) The last action of the Diet, on 25 March 1803, was the passage of the German Mediatisation, which re-organized and secularized the Empire. Following the approval of that final constitutional document, the Diet never met again and its existence ended with the fall of the Empire in 1806.19
Old picture of the room where the Diet sat.20
New picture of the same.21
But it was not Fenimore Cooper's profound historical knowledge which provided him with details about the history of Regensburg, instead, he had surely, and once again, taken the information about the "Perpetual Diet of Regensburg" from the Manual of Engelmann/Reichard. About Ratisbon the following passage reads:
The Diet of the German Empire took place in that town since 1662 until 1806, the era of the secularization. Visit the place where the general Diet assembled, also the townhouse which is a very old building; it is nowadays both the police station and a lottery; there you may also find a collection of old paintings.22
The third aspect of Fenimore Cooper's remark in the Manual refers to the sentence about the bridge being "long and massive". Again it was surely influenced by the Manual where you find: "Old and famous bridge across the Danube".23
Next to the Dome the stony bridge is the most significant landmark of the city of Regensburg. It is the oldest preserved bridge in Germany und pertains as a masterwork of medieval art of construction. It was erected from 1135 to 1146. On its opening day it was the only bridge crossing the Danube between Ulm and Vienna. For 800 years it was the only bridge crossing the Danube in Regensburg.24
Bridge in Regensburg nowadays.25
To walk from the House wherein the hotel Golden Cross was to the town hall takes two minutes, and from there to the bridge another three minutes.
About Amberg, the next town where they stopped over on their way to Dresden, Fenimore Cooper wrote (Distance: 70km/44 miles):
Staid here the night of May 17th 1830. Inn. Wittlesbach [Wittelsbach.] Very clean, good and cheap, though we had the greatest difficulty in making ourselves understood. Very pretty little town and environs. The church of the pilgrimage beautiful placed on a green hill, about a mile from the town (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
Again the information about the hotel Wittelsbach, like that about the "church of pilgrimage", is taken from the Manual:
In the neighbourhood the famous shrine of Notre-Dame of Bon Secours with a superbe church. (...) Inn. à l'hotel de Wittelsbach; au Sauvage; à la Buvette; au Lion.26
You can find a lot of information about the town of Bayreuth in the Manual, where the composer Richard Wagner lived from 1872 to 1881 and where he established the Bayreuther Festspiele in 1876, which even today is still an annual social event. But since Wagner was not even old enough or anywhere near it, Fenimore Cooper only picked up the name of the hotel Soleil d'or, which means Golden Sun from his source of information and wrote it into his copy of the Manual (Distance: 80 km/50 miles):
Bayreuth. Staid there the night of the 18th May 1830. Inn. Soleil d'or. Good, clean and cheap.—A very well built little town, especially around the new palace. Handsome walks, on the banks of the Main &c —(Beard, L&J, I, 414).
Following Bayreuth, the Fenimore Cooper family stopped in Hof (55 km/34 miles), Chemnitz (105 km/62 miles) and Freiberg (38 km/24 miles). The Manual informs about how Freiberg was a great center of the exploitation of mines and of mineralogy:
Seat of several offices of mines and of an excellent academy for mining with very nice similar collections.27
Consequently this town received an annotation by the American traveler in the Manual:
Town oldish, but respectable. The adjoining country much cut up with excavations for mines, and of a sterile appearance. We saw plenty of miners in the road with their peculiar dress, of a frock and leather apron over the loins behind (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
At a distance of twenty four miles (40 km) from Freiberg the travelers reached the town of Dresden:
Arrived at Dresden at 4 o'clock in the Afternoon on the 21st May 1830 - Hotel de Pologne - clean, but neither very good nor cheap (Beard, L&J, I, 414).
In the 18th and 19th century the Hotel de Pologne was one of the noblest addresses in Dresden. It existed from 1753 until 1869 and was situated in the Schloßstraße 7. The building was destroyed during Second World War. Unfortunately, there are no records about the stay of the Fenimore Cooper family in that hotel in 1830. In the Dresden Advertiser (Dresdener Anzeiger), no. 143, from May, 23rd, 1830 however, in the section "arriving travelers, the May, 21st, 1830" we find a peculiar note: "Im H[otel] de Pol[ogne]: (...) H[err] Dablcooper a[us] England". Translation, without the abbreviations: "In the hotel de Pologne: (...) Mr. Dablcooper from England".
This text may mislead you into thinking that it was not the Fenimore Cooper family that checked into the Hotel de Pologne but a Mr. Dablcooper. This is extremely implausible. For Fenimore Cooper reports in his replicable entries in the Manual about the places where the family stayed during their travel to Dresden. And the stop in Landshut is verifiable with the above mentioned note in the Landshuter weekly paper. It is not impossible that a person with the name of Dablcooper existed, even if it is extremely unlikely, but the probability that if such a person existed and would have checked in at the same day in the same hotel in the same town as Fenimore Cooper is hard to believe. I take the view that there was an error in communicating the name from the hotel to the Dresdener Advertiser and that the note in the journal refers to the American traveler. I would contend that the name Dablecooper is really a mistake probably referring to the double rooms the Coopers rented at the hotel. Onomatopoetic Dablcooper, if you consider the Saxon dialect, sounds like: a double (room for) Cooper.
The American family did not stay for a long time in the Hotel de Pologne. Beard informs:
They took a cheerful apartment overlooking the Altmarkt four days later (Beard, L&J, I, 415).29
The city and the cultural offerings are appreciated and enjoyed, as the daughter Susan Augusta writes later in her memoirs:
The town was admired, with its fine public grounds, noble river and bridge, and above all its gallery, worthy of Italy.30
The reference to "noble river and bridge" and "its gallery" may also have been taken from the Manual of Engelmann/Reichard, for about Dresden you can read there, among other things:
Nice capital of the kingdom of Saxony upon Elbe, populated and enjoyable for many strangers. The fortifications are changed into walks. 2600 m more than 50,000 inhabitants. Beautiful bridge across the Elbe, in front of it you see the statue of Auguste II. (...) A magnificent gallery of paintings whose number amounts up to 1500 according to the catalog of 1818, the filthy rich keeps the weapons of the knights, the Zwinger (open road) near the castle.31
It can thus be seen that the novelist used the manual for information very intensely and that he recorded, as Beard says, "a few details and observations" (Beard, L&J, I, 436) into that book. Sometimes his remarks are a little bit odd because he repeats in other words what he has read about in the Manual and the locations he visited. This fact can be interpreted as a confirmation and as a memory aid by the author for the places visited.
Unfortunately, James Fenimore Cooper has said little about his stay in Dresden in his journals or letters. The most important literary aspect of that residence is that the novel The Water-Witch has been printed in very small numbers here in Dresden, which James indeed attempted in vain several times during his sojourn in Italy. However, this will not be explored any further in this article.32
But one of our author's remarks from that time concerning Dresden and Germany should be mentioned to show his intelligent political overview and judgment, even as a stranger, in this town and in this country. He wrote in a letter from Dresden to Peter Augustus Jay on July 15th, 1830:
We have just had here a celebration of a jubilee in honor of the reformation. The court is catholic to bigotry, while the people of Saxony are protestants. There were many riots in different places, and some few lives have been lost. There was one night, during which the grand square on which we live, was an encampment. The desire of the people is, here as everywhere, a constitution (Beard, L&J, I, 421).
This observation has to be seen in the context of the public unrest in the Saxony kingdom, because these riots in June form a part of the continuous demands for the abolition of the strict monarchical conditions. The root causes for these riots go back to the end of the 18th century.
Since the end of the 18th century, stimulated by outer and inner impulses long-term economic and social as well as political and ideological causes had worked towards overcoming the existing conditions. (...) Since the change of sovereigns was not used in 1827 for political changes from above, the fronts hardened; the reform movement was intensified and culminated in the Diet of 1830, with its fruitless adjournment in early July 1830, the last chance for a peaceful settlement wasted.33
The actual cause for the riots in June in Dresden formed the 300th anniversary of the so called Augsburg Confession:
On June, 25th, 1830 there had been riots among the protestant inhabitants of Dresden against the catholic court on occasion of the 3th centenary of the Augsburg Confession.—The Confessio Augustana (Augsburg Confession) is a fundamental avowal of faith of the protestant Imperial estates to their respective faith. The Confessio Augustana was presented to Emperor Karl V at the diet in Augsburg in 1530. The Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire were those persons and corporations that had seats and voted in the diet.34
Fenimore Cooper's conclusion that "the desire of the people is, here as everywhere, a constitution" has to be evaluated as an accurate observation and judgment of the actual political situation in this, for the travelling writer, strange country. This deserves special acknowledgement, especially for a non-European.
Contrary to their original intention the family stayed in Dresden only until August of that year. Receiving information about the July Revolution in Paris, the novelist left the city at once, which was also named Florence on the Elbe, at once. Alone without his family, in order to reach Paris very quickly so as to be a contemporary witness of the ramifications of that historical event—he was at that time full of hope that Lafayette could start the European experiment of a republic35—he took the Express Coach. He noted into the Manual:
Left Dresden on the 11th August, for Paris, and Mrs. Cooper and children followed on the 25th of the same month (Beard, L&J, I, 436).
His journey to Paris took him among other cities via Leipzig, Fulda, Hanau the home town of Cooper collector Rudolf Drescher, to Frankfurt, where he stayed one night in the White Swan hotel, to Mayence and further on to France (Cf. Beard, L&J, II, 143). Thus Fenimore Cooper's first travel to Germany ended much earlier than he had expected and planned.
1 James F. Beard (ed.): Letters and Journals of James Fenimore Cooper, 6 vols., Cambridge University Press, I, 385. This work of Beard will be cited as "Beard, L&J, volume, page" within the text.
2 Hugh C. MacDougall: Where was James? James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers No.3, Second Printing 1998, p. 7.
3 James Fenimore Cooper: Gleanings in Europe: Italy, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981, p. 303.
4 Lindgren, Alpenübergänge von Bayern nach Italien 1500—1850, München: Hirmer 1986, p.14.
5 Goethe coming from Munich to Italy via Innsbruck and the Brenner, also took this route in September 1786. Heinrich Heine took the same route in 1829 to go from Munich to Italy—it was at that time the most used route. The Seefelder Sattel is a real pass and the Scharnitz pass shortly after Seefeld with 955m elevation is not a mountain pass but a narrow valley.
6 The full title is: Handbuch für Reisende aus allen Ständen nebst Postkarten zur großen Reise durch Europa von Frankreich nach Engelland und einer Karte von der Schweiz und den Gletschern von Faucigny.
7 http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Führer_ (Nachschlagewerk).
8 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_August_Ottokar_Reichard. —In 1801 Reichard published the first edition of his Der Passagier auf der Reise in Deutschland, in der Schweiz, zu Paris und Petersburg (The traveler in Germany, in Switzerland, at Paris and Petersburg), which was very successful and has been published for more than 60 years in up to nineteen editions.
9 See: Taschenbuch für Reisende durch Deutschland und die angränzenden Länder, Frankfurt, Wilmans 1826, Prefaces to the individual editions.
11 Beard, who was not certain about the dates of the stops Cooper made in the respective cities, added the extrapolated correct dates in brackets. Cf. ibid., p. 413f.
12 www.antike-am-koenigsplatz.mwn.de/en/ancient-masterpieces/museum-highlights/archive-of-museum-highlights/aeginetans.html. Last access 05.07.2014.
13 http://denkmaeler-muenchen.de/bilder/glyp/%E4gineten%20alt.jpg. Last access 14.07.2014.
14 Original in French, translated by the author: "Belle capitale du royaume de Bavière sur l'Iser. 300 m, 60.000 h. Palais du roi où l'on admire la magnifique salle dite la salle des Empereurs et le superbe escalier de marbre. Glyptothèque du prince-royal avec ses trésors artistiques".
15 Email from Christian Gliwitzky, Munich to me from 11.07.2014.
16 Original in French, translated by the author: "Palais du roi, chateau de Trausnitz. (...) L'eglise de Saint-Martin avec sa tour, haute de 456 pieds. (...) Aub. au Soleil d'or; au Coq; au Prince Royal".
17 Many thanks to the town archive in Landshut (email@example.com) for providing this information. My translation.
18 Cf. Beard, L&J, I, S. 413f.
19 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_Diet_of_Regensburg. Last access 08.08.2014.—In some respects the Diet of Regensburg may be compared with the Congress in the United States of America.
21 "Immerwährender Reichstag" by unknown Artist—Catalog Exhibition HRR. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons—http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Immerw%C3%A4hrender_Reichstag.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Immerw%C3%A4hrender_Reichstag.jpg
21 Info der Stadt Regensburg. http://www.regensburg.de/fm/96/thumbnails/banner-reichstagsmuseum.jpg.458442.jpg
22 Original in French, translated by the author: "La Diète de l'Empire Germanique a siégé dans cette ville, depuis 1662 jusqu'en 1806, époque de la dissolution. Voyez le local où s'assemblait le Diète générale, ainsi que l'Hotel de ville qui est un viex batiment; c'est maintenant le local de la police et du Lotto; l'on y trouve aussi une collection d'anciens tableaux".
23 Original in French, translated by the author: "Vieux et célèbre pont sur le Danube".
25 "Regensburg—Steinerne Bruecke ohne Dom" von Hytrion aus der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia. Lizenziert unter CC BY-SA 3.0 über Wikimedia Commons— http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Regensburg_-_Steinerne_Bruecke_ohne_Dom.jpg#/media/File:Regensburg_-_Steinerne_Bruecke_ohne_Dom.jpg
26 Original in French, translated by the author: "Tout proche, le célèbre pèlerinage à Notre-Dame de bon secours avec une superbe église. (...) Aub. à l'hotel de Wittelsbach; au Sauvage; à la Buvette; au Lion".
27 Original in French, translated by the author: "Siege de plusieurs bureau pour les mines et d'une excellente académie des mines avec de belles collections analogues".
28 Information forwarded to me by the town archive of Dresden on 09.07.2014.
29 Cf. Marianne and Thomas Philbrick: Historical Introduction to James Fenimore Cooper: The Water-Witch, AMS Press, New York 2010, p. XIX, footnote 20. Cf. Susan Fenimore Cooper: Introduction to: The Water-Witch, London: George Routledge and Sons, 1887, p. XXI f. unfortunately no documents in the archive in Dresden have survived.
30 Susan Fenimore Cooper: A Second Glance Backward, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 60, issue 360 (October 1887), pp. 474-486, quote p. 483.
31 Original in French, translated by the author: "Belle capital du royaume de Saxe, sur l'Elbe, peuplée et séjour agréable pour beaucoup d'étrangers. Les fortifications changes en promenades. 2600 m. plus de 50,000 h. Beau pont sur l'Elbe; on voit au-devant la statue d'Auguste II. (...) Une magnifique galerie de tableaux dont le nombre se monte à 1500, d'après le catalogue de 1818)."
32 See Marianne and Thomas Philbrick: Historical Introduction to James Fenimore Cooper: The Water-Witch, AMS Press, New York 2010.
33 "Seit dem Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts hatten von äußeren und inneren Impulsen angeregte langfristige wirtschaftlich-soziale wie auch politisch-ideologische Ursachen auf eine Überwindung der bestehenden Verhältnisse hingewirkt. (...) Da der Thronwechsel von 1827 nicht zu politischem Wandel von oben genutzt wurde, verhärteten sich die Fronten; die Reformbewegung verstärkte sich und kulminierte auf dem Landtag von 1830, mit dessen ergebnisloser Vertagung Anfang Juli 1830 die letzte Chance zu friedlichem Ausgleich vertan war". Michael Hammer: Kleinstaatliche Revolution in Sachsen 1830/31. Volksbewegung und Obrigkeiten. Rede anlässlich der Verleihung des Horst-Springer-Preises 1995. Translation by the author. Last access 16.07.2014.
34 "25. VI. 1830 - Unruhen zu den 300-Jahrfeiern der Augsburgischen Konfession unter der protestantischen Bevölkerung gegenüber dem katholischen Hof. - Die Confessio Augustana (Augsburger Bekenntnis / Konfession) ist ein grundlegendes Bekenntnis der protestantischen Reichsstände zum jeweiligen Glauben. Die Confessio Augustana wurde auf dem Reichstag zu Augsburg 1530 Kaiser Karl V. dargelegt. Die Reichsstände des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation waren diejenigen Personen und Korporationen, die Sitz und Stimme im Reichstag hatten". (http://www.privatrechtskultur.de/polizeihaus/index.html). Translation by the author. Last access 16.07.2014.
35 Cf. Ernest Redekop and Maurice Geracht: Historical Introduction to James Fenimore Cooper: Gleanings in Europe: The Rhine, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986, p. XVIIIf.
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