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Cooper on Film
(Central Missouri State University)
(Originally issued on disk as James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers -- Electronic Series No. 2)
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Among the art forms that have been classified as native to the United States are jazz, detective stories, and the musical comedy.To this register must be added Cooper's creation: The Western novel and its modern media manifestation -- The Western film.America's first professional author, James Fenimore Cooper, probably never considered that he had created an art form.Michael Butler [p. 53] stated that "Leatherstocking has traditionally been treated as the first fully developed American hero, the type prefiguring later anti--types like the mountain man, cowboy, gangster, soldier of fortune, expatriate writer, private eye." Cawelti [1990, p. 86] claimed, "Whatever Cooper's shortcomings as a realist and a stylist, his creation of the ambiguous American epic of the frontier and its deeply divided hero was one of the most important mythical creations in the history of American culture." Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales were "... the first significant fiction of the West and a formative influence on the tradition of Western fiction throughout the nineteenth century." [Pye, p. 200]
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Included in the etiological foundation of The Western are Homeric tales and the King Arthur legends.According to Richard Slotkin many of the mythical patterns in the Western were present in the Captivity and Indian War Literature from the founding of European settlements in America.The dime novels of the latter part of the 1800's and the exceeding popular live Wild West Shows such as Buffalo Bill's, Pawnee Bill's, and the Miller Brother's 101 Ranch recreated the heroes and the villains of the West on paper and in pasture. In a chapter entitled "The Western Hero in the Dime Novel," Henry Nash Smith indicated Cooper's influence on The Western novel: "Of seventy-nine dime novels selected as a sample of those dealing with the West between 1860 and 1893, forty contain one or more hunters or trappers whose age, costume, weapons, and general functions entitle them to be considered lineal descendants of the great original." [Smith, p. 95] The western frontier was very much a part of the American experience until the early 1900's. William Everson, in his chapter on The Western, stated: "Prior to 1912, the literary influence was James Fenimore Cooper ... The "Noble Indian" preceded the cowboy as the first western screen hero..." [Everson, p. 240]. Assorted
writers such as Smith, Folsom, and Cawelti have attributed the invention of the "Western" to James Fenimore Cooper. Richard Cawelti (1976) declares "His
(Cooper's) great creation, Nathaniel Bumppo, the Leatherstocking, became the
prototype for the western hero and thus the progenitor of countless stories,
novels, films, and television programs that use the formula Cooper first
articulated." Although the frontier tales of James Fenimore Cooper were not
"Westerns" as the word connotes today, Cooper's "Easterns" were staged on the western frontier of the time, and they became the prototype for The Western as the frontier moved toward the setting sun. His Leatherstocking Tales were certainly instrumental in creating the genre. "Cooper's great invention is ... the Western.Without Cooper, there is no Shane, no The Virginian, no My Darling Clementine, no The Searchers, no Unforgiven." [Harkness, 1992] Cooper's frontier writings are an integral component of the foundation of "The Western" as an art form.
While many scholars champion the Deerslayer, Butler purposes another Cooper character for the genesis of the hero of the B movie. "In the century following publication of the first of the
Leatherstocking Tales, therefore, the Natty Bumppo figure steadily degenerated.
By the middle of this century he had become almost exclusively a comic figure.
In the B film, his anti-social behavior was trivialized into senile
grumblings..." "The balanced situation of Oliver Edwards became the essential
characteristic of one kind of Western hero." "B movie cowboys were true
descendants of Oliver Edwards. Like him they possessed the ability to slide
between society and wilderness excelling in each sphere." "He evades the tragic
consequences of Natty Bumppo's life ..." who in contrast is trapped on one
level. He excels in each sphere, exploits each completely, but commits himself
to neither." "Cooper reaffirmed this fundamental difference between types of men
in The Last of the Mohicans." As scholars of The Western provide us with
additional insights to its development, we can affirm a Cooperian hand in the
creation of The Western.
Whether manifested in the form of novels or of films, Cooper's concept of the hero may be experienced as the unifying thread throughout the Western.Both the hero's first appearance in the film and his last can often be attributed to Cooper. The dramatic appearance of Leatherstocking in the first chapter of The Prairie is often duplicated in the Western film usually with the hero entering the scene of strife against a
dramatic backdrop [John Wayne in "Stagecoach;" Alan Ladd's entrance in "Shane;" Clint Eastwood's appearing out of the smoke in "A Fistful of Dollars"]. In the end of the film the Western hero is usually portrayed departing for the next frontier as did Leatherstocking. The protagonist in the Western novel or film, like Cooper's character, is: a strong honorable man; a patriot who loves nature and the freedom of the broad expanse of the land; reluctant to use force but efficient as a fast draw killer who respects the villain as a fighting man; a quiet western knight who is the protector of virtuous women; a romantic figure who, following the resolution of the strife, leaves with his sidekick or rides off alone nostalgically into the sunset on his horse looking for another he left behind.
Jenni Calder explains that loneliness is a persistent theme in the saga of the old frontier. "Fenimore Cooper captured it first in Hawkeye, who is both proud and melancholy in his solitariness. It is not essentially different in the Lone Ranger or any other of Hollywood's mighty heroes ex machina." [Calder, p. 3]. Perhaps because of his life style a particular characteristic of the hero is usually a strong attachment to an animal. Cooper led the way with Natty's dog Hector. Although there have been notable canine friends in Western films, the horse usually shared or more often won out for this role. The frontiersman moved silently and swiftly on foot through the eastern forest. Throughout the wide western wilderness the horse enabled the hero to move freely.
The "initiation into manhood" motif found in The Deerslayer is also often the main character's ordeal in the Western. A conflict is created by the adversary, and after parrying most of this evil by inner control, the hero must resort to violence to resolve the conflict. "This narrative pattern -- a protagonist placed in a situation where some form of violence or criminality becomes a moral necessity -- is one of the basic archetypes of American literature. It is certainly an important element in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Saga." [Cawelti 1975, p. 529] This conflict is
resolved with another Cooper first: the fast draw. "To cock and poise his rifle were the acts of a single motion; then, aiming almost without sighting he fired..." [The Deerslayer, p. 121]. Cooper's description has been the basis for many a filmed gunfight.
The successful completion of the hero's journey is also often accompanied by a change of name for the character as Cooper first penned for Natty Bumppo. Examples are: William F. Cody became Buffalo Bill; James Butler Hickok became Wild Bill; William Ronney became Billy the Kid; or Jim Lacy who became just "Nevada." Although a name like Natty Bumppo held little magic, "Hawkeye" caught on like a prairie fire. The name of Cooper's
hero was used in various forms by writers of the dime novels. Warren St. John's Single Eye a Story of King Phillip's War; Charles Dunning Clark's Eagle Eye; or, Ralph Warren and his Red Friend. A Story of the Fall of Oswego; Lewis J. Swift's Keen-Eye; Max Martine's Sharp-Eye a Beadle and Adams book of 1873 [Henry M. Avery, who wrote the book, had been captured and adopted by the Sioux and had married a Chief's daughter]; Bruin Adams' Glass Eye, The Great Shot of the West; and even Buffalo Bill Cody, who wrote Deadly-Eye, the Unknown Scout in 1875, all appropriated the magic of Cooper's character's name, with its many connotations of the hero, and rode to popularity.
In addition to the Hero, many other character types seen in Western films can be traced to characters in Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales and especially to those in The Last of the Mohicans.
A relevant character in later Westerns is the hero's buddy, friend, companion, and comrade i.e. Chingachgook who played these roles in The Leatherstocking Tales. He epitomizes male bonding which is an integral part of the Western's male-dominated world. He augments the hero by possessing useful talents that the hero does not. He is often used as a contrast to the hero's philosophy of life; and although both possess similar admirable qualities, they are attracted to and respect each other's differences.
Neither can change, but both have their appointments on the frontier. Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday in the many films about their lives; Tom Dunston and Matthew Garth of "Red River;" Shane and Joe Starrett of "Shane;" Guthrie McCabe and Jim Gary of "Two Road Together;" "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid;" and Ransom Stoddard and Tom Doniphon of "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance" are some examples of this role. The character has been replicated in the Red Rider and the Little Beaver Republic film series [and comic strip]; Tom Jeffords and Cochise in "Broken Arrow" [both the film and TV series]; and portrayed again in the Lone Ranger and Tonto films and serials.
Cooper received a great deal of criticism about the characterization of the women in his novels, but Cooper provided two enduring role models for the Western: Cora and Alice Munro. Cora represented the dark and passionate black haired beauty found in Western films. Often as the good friend of the hero she was socially "bad" enough to prevent any long term relationship. She would and did give her life for the hero many times. Freeing the hero by having the good bad women die was also Cooper's denouement. The pure frail lady Alice was the blond, usually from back East, that men married to maintain civilization as it was known on the frontier. Cooper's archetypes became the Dance Hall Girl and the Eastern School Marm.
Notable examples of Cooper's female characters in Western films may be seen in "High Noon:" the raven-haired Mexican Helen Ramirez played by Katy Jurado and the blond Quaker Amy Kane played by Grace Kelly."My Darling Clementine" features Doc Holiday's dark haired Apache Chihuahua (Linda Darnell) and blond Clementine Carter (Cathy Downs) who has come to the West to save the once gifted doctor. Other examples are good bad girl Corinne Calvert ("Powder River"), Carolyn Jones ("Heaven with a Gun"), and Anne
Baxter in the 1960 version of "Cimarron." Although both female character's hair color was sometimes changed in later films, Cooper set the stage for the "good good girl" as well as for the "good bad girl." The latter sometimes developed into a major character. Examples are: Amanda Blake as Miss Kitty ("Gunsmoke"), Marlene Dietrich as Frenchie ("Destry Rides Again"), and Marilyn Monroe as the blonde dance hall girl in "The Misfits".
Cooper used the motif of miscegenation in several of his frontier novels: The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, The Prairie, and The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish. Although the theme proved fascinating and fruitful for the story writer, film scenarists also chose not to permit both lovers to live. "The Squaw Man" (1913), "The Vanishing American" (1925), "Cimarron," (1931 & 1960), and "Jeremiah Johnson" (1972) are good examples of using a violent ending to the mixed couple's relationship. Western novelist and Western film makers thus followed Cooper's disapproval of mixed marriages and the potential progeny
who belong to neither race.
The Western villain must possess both positive traits and evil qualities. He must be able to fight nearly as well as the hero. He is often the "brains" behind the conflict. Cooper provided Westerns with a model often cloned: Magua. The villain must dominate the heroine to prove his superiority and/or to gain revenge. In Western films the villain is
often a treacherous Indian although on occasion he is a white man with the
recognizable characteristics. Some examples are: Lt. Muir in The
Pathfinder; Chester Bent in "Destry Rides Again," Trampas in "The
Virginian;" and Scar in "The Searchers."
The Western film hero often has a humorous "sidekick" character such as Cooper's David Gamut (Last of the Mohicans); Capt. Charles Cap (The Pathfinder); Ben Pump (The Pioneers); or Dr. Obed Battius (The Prairie). While Cooper may have used these characters to deprecate characteristics he found offensive, Western talkies of the 1930's most likely incorporated Gabby Hayes/Smiley Burnette characters for box office appeal and monetary gain. Andy Devine ("Stagecoach"); Victor McLaglen in John Ford's "Fort Apache," "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon," and "Rio Grande;" and Walter Brennan ("Red River") are examples of later films which used the "sidekick" character. Carried into TV we see Leo Carrillo as Pancho in "The Cisco Kid," Pat Buttram in "The Gene Autry Show," and Andy Devine as Jingles in "Wild Bill Hicock," Ernest Borgnine as "Dutch" in "The Wild Bunch," and Will Geer as "Griz" in "Jeremiah Johnson." Even Bob Dylan in "Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid," and the bear in John Huston's "The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean" qualify for "sidekick" characters. Hollywood's B-Westerns (1930-1950)
hold the distinction of using Cooper's comic relief character most frequently although the role continues to appear in films into this decade.
"In the first of the Leatherstocking Tales, The Pioneers (1823), Cooper turned to popular literary types for his hero and helper. Oliver Edwards and Natty Bumppo are conventional characters of romantic fiction -- American versions of an aristocratic hero and his faithful servant. Cooper used similar characters in two more novels in the series: The Last of the Mohicans (1826) and The Prairie (1827). In each, he matched the humble Bumppo with a younger and "nobler" man. In part because of Cooper's considerable prestige and circulation, the partnership of young hero and older helper remained a constant one in frontier fiction." [Butler, pp. 54-55] "The Dude," in Hollywood parlance, is a young inexperienced stock figure who is usually saved by his mentor's savvy of the frontier. Memorable Dudes penned by Cooper are Duncan Heyward (Last of the Mohicans; Jasper Western (The Pathfinder); Oliver Edwards (The Pioneers); and Duncan Uncas Middleton (The Prairie). In The Western, the Dude is often a rash, young, military officer or a youthful, noble-minded, courageous character who is unacquainted with the dangers of the frontier and whose actions must be tempered. Butler [p. 55] stated that "In this century, young hero paired with older helper was perhaps the most common relationship of the B Western film." As Natty Bumppo ages he becomes a counselor as well as a teacher to the novice. The character of the mentor may be seen in Ben Cartwright and Hopalong Cassidy types. "Throughout the thirties, forties, and early fifties, veteran comedians and character actors like George Hayes, Al St. John, Andy Clyde, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Lee White played Natty Bumppo to the Oliver Edwards of Roy Rogers, Buster Crabbe, William Boyd, John Mack Brown, Eddie Dean, Jimmy Wakely. Until recently at least one variation of the pattern survived in the friendship of Marshal Dillon and Festus Hagen." [Butler, p. 55]
Another Western character type can be found in The Prairie: Ishmael Bush and his clan. A primitive group who rely only on themselves, the clan is above the law; has no regard for the land, morality, nor people's property; and is usually portrayed as barbaric, lecherous, and often deranged. Examples of "the clan" may be seen in "Wagonmaster" (the Clegg family); "Man of the West" (Dock Tobin and his boys); "Ride the High Country" (the Hammond Brothers) and in other Westerns.
Justice often comes at the end of a rope in Western films as Cooper depicted it with Abiram White's death in the last novel of Leatherstocking's life. Lynching was an acceptable way of dispensing justice in the Western with its lack of civilized law. Cooper's positive view of lynching (in a situation devoid of law) can be seen in "The Virginian" and other early movies. This endorsement did not change until "The Ox-Bow Incident" was filmed in 1943.
A stock plot formula found in some Western novels, but especially in the Western movie, is also found first in Cooper's novels. The woman motivates the man to be the hero and to protect her, her family, or her property. She has no mother and travels or lives with her father on the frontier. This aging father is unable to protect his daughter: enter the hero. The capture-escape-pursuit-capture-escape formula has also been a very successful plotline [John Ford films "The Searchers" and "Two Rode Together" deal with reclaiming Comanche hostages]. The filmmakers usually followed Cooper's picture of the noble Indian whose lands have been appropriated by the white man or antithetically they portrayed the Indian as the blood thirsty savage.
If Western films [and novels] seem familiar, there is a good chance that the viewer has experienced the plot before. Once a writer finds a plot formula that works, it is usually reproduced with some minor changes. Cooper used a successful formula when he opened The Pathfinder with a similar scene that The Last of the Mohicans began. Cooper's use of formulae [contrary killings, Indian's thirst for blood (usually white), friendships between Indians and whites, deaths and marriages] in the
Leatherstocking Tales laid the formula foundation for Western film writers who ground out a glut of films and novels that resembled each other. Cooper's formulae served B-Western films well from the 1920's until the early 1950's.
Although a powerful saving force has long been an author's deus ex machina, Cooper in chapter thirty of The Deerslayer popularized the last minute military rescue. "They came upon the charge, the scarlet of the king's livery shining among the bright green foliage of the forest." [p. 521] The rescue scene has been replicated in a plethora of Western novels with the U. S. Cavalry charge and has been stock footage in many Western films.
The Pioneers is important to the Western genre because in it may be found the basic plots used in writing the Western. The novel is also crucial to understand Western writing because Cooper deals with the ownership of the land which was central in so many Western books and films.
All of this action takes place, as Cooper so aptly described in his novels, on the edge of civilization: the frontier with its perils and exciting adventure awaiting in the next chapter or on the next reel of film. The Western should be with us for many years to come because the social problems that Cooper explored in his oeuvre still face each new generation. Cooper's Western building blocks: plots, characters, themes, and iconography are already being explored in the films and TV serials of our final
Despite the fact that Cooper furnished the Western film enduring characters, plots, themes and motifs, Cooper has not fared well at the movies. Jeffery Walker stated: "Cooper has been generally misinterpreted and misrepresented by filmmakers. Almost all of the film adaptations have concentrated on his plots, always to the novel's detriment …" [p. 105] Adapters of his novels for the stage have done exceptionally well compared to the screenplay writers (scenarists), producers, and directors of films based on his novels [Harris]. Starting in 1909 with a silent film,
Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales have spanned nine decades of cinematography.
Unfortunately most of the attempts to put Cooper's stories on film have been
assessed as weak to mediocre. Lee [p. 59] stated, "Cooper's West is as
second-rate as the thousands of Westerns modeled on it." Beginning with D. W. (David Wark) Griffith and ending with the last attempt in 1992 by Michael Mann, Cooper's books have suffered Hollywood's penchant for remolding a good story into a Hollywood plot.
As America's first professional writer, Cooper holds the distinction of being the first American writer to have a play produced based on his novel. [Harris] Cooper's The Spy, published December 22, 1821, was adapted for the stage and produced March 1, 1822. The Leatherstocking Tales have been the source of most of the films made from Cooper's books, and The Last of the Mohicans has been the book most often adapted to the screen. The first public showing of a motion picture was at the
Holland Brother's Kinetoscope Parlor in New York City on April 14, 1894.
Perusing the list of silent movies from 1893 to 1929/30 would indicate that one of D. W. Griffith's first silent films for Biograph Studios was "Leather
Stocking" in 1909. Cooper thus also holds the distinction of being the first
American author to have his novel adapted for film.
Occasionally films were made using a few of Cooper's characters. One could conclude that sometimes they had been thrown in at the last moment to make a mediocre film respectable and/or perhaps a larger financial success. Good examples of this practice are: "The Pioneers," Monogram, 1941 which had no resemblance to any of Cooper's plot; and the script of "The Last of the Redmen," Columbia Pictures, 1947 which took so many liberties with The Last of the Mohicans that it was difficult to recognize Cooper's story. "The Iroquois Trail," United Artists, 1950, directed by Phil Karlson portrayed the adventures of George Montgomery as Hawkeye and Monte Blue as Sagamore (Chingachgook), his faithful Indian guide, as they deal with attacks by hostile Indians during the French and Indian War. Although a few characters are reminiscent of Cooper's: a Huron renegade; a beautiful
commander's daughter; and her officer admirer; there is no other connection with Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. The 1957 Canadian TV series, "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans," only alluded to the novel by paralleling some incidents in the first of the thirty-nine episodes, i.e.: bad Indian leads party astray and lusts after the Colonel's daughter.
Cooper was a hallmark against which other film writers were judged. A 1910 New York Dramatic Mirror review by Frank Woods of D. W. Griffith's "A Mohawk's Way" stated, "It is the noble red man of James Fenimore Cooper that we see in this film -- the Indian of romance who, as some people claim, never existed, but who is nevertheless the ideal type for story telling." [The film was not an adaptation of a Cooper book.] Wednesday, August 18, 1999 The 1928 silent film "Spoilers of the West" directed by W. S. Van Dyke for MGM has as its plot trappers and
squatters on Indian land causing trouble with the Indians of Red Cloud (Chief Big Tree). The hero (Tim McCoy) and some Indian police stop a war. A
Variety critic ["Rush"] (March 21, 1928) commented that, "McCoy
undertakes the job supported by a handful of Indian police (a historical detail that isn't often played up in movies or fiction). He also noted that this film contained "spectacular Indian fighting stuff" and that the "melodrama is dealt with in terms of Fenimore Cooper instead of the Old Scout dime novel style."
Cooper's books were very popular in Europe and many were adapted to the European stage [Harris]. It was inevitable that European attempts would be made to put Cooper's books on film with the advent of that medium. Spaghetti Westerns" were low budget films usually made in Europe, with an nternational assortment of actors, directors, technicians, and scenery. "Sauerkraut Westerns" were similar low budget films but originated in Germany. These films tried to impersonate American B - Westerns, but were often rated "Z."
Movie serials started in the silent era and continued through their brief Golden Age: 1939 to 1942. Perhaps the classics were serialized to appease the PTA and the parent's complaints about violence. Many children read the same classics in school that their parents and teachers had read. The classic serials were both familiar to the children and assuaged parental opposition to film violence. British writer Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was the first classic adapted to the silent serial screen in 1922, and French author Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days followed in 1923. Universal filmed both serials. Pathé was the first to adapt Cooper in 1924. Cooper became the first American author to be added to the cliffhanger serialization format with ten chapters of "Leatherstocking." Mascot Pictures produced a twelve chapter sound serialization of The Last of the Mohicans in 1932. Thirty-nine episodes for Western radio programs were also produced in the 1930's from Cooper's books. The Deerslayer [13 chapters] and The Last of the Mohicans were both serialized on NBC. [Swartz and Reinehr p. 412]
Other than the early silent film "The Spy," which received excellent reviews, Hollywood has only drawn ineffectively upon Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. Writers, producers, and directors should also be aware of the potential for dramatic films from some of Cooper's untapped novels: a Revolutionary War novel with an accurately depicted battle scene, a frontier novel of kidnapping, love and death, a novel of survival locked in a frozen sea, and even a trial novel which might have some appeal today. Although Cooper was the first to develop the sea novel, Hollywood has neglected the vast number of Cooper's sea stories whose dramatic potential could rival Hollywood's rendition of "The Sea Wolf," "Moby Dick," "Mutiny on the Bounty," or The Hornblower series. Hollywood has not yet begun to exploit Cooper's potential on the wide wide screen. May we not have long to wait before more of Cooper's dramatic tales are adapted to
Dates for films may vary because various sources list films by copyright date, by preview date, by review date, or by the general release date in the United States and/or abroad. Titles may vary by different distributors and in different countries. Films may be retitled from the announced title on release or when released in different formats. A reel was a unit of measurement for early films. It was usually 1000 feet in length and ran for ten minutes. Sources are cited for single listings of a film.
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- 1907 "The Spy," Vitagraph, copyright: 7 March
1907. [Stewart, Vol. I, p. 374; Walls, p. 57]
- 1909 "Leather Stocking," Biograph Studios, silent,
996 feet, directed by D. W. Griffith; camera: G. W. (Billy) Bitzer and Arthur
Marvin; filmed: August 24, 25, 26 and 27 at Cuddebackville, NY; release date: 27
September 1909, copyright: 29 September 1909. [derived a large part of its
plot from The Last of the Mohicans; adapted by Griffith; photographed almost
entirely outdoors with only a few scenes inside a stockade]
- 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel,
silent. Pat Powers (Motion Picture Company) released the movie on August
1st. [filmed much of the plot, but allowed Cora Munro to live]
- 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," directed by
Theodore Marston. [Barker, p. 28] with Frank Crane; William Russell; and
Alphonse Ethier [Lentz, p. 1229]
- 1911 "The Spy," directed by Otis Turner with
Hobart Bosworth [International Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 87]
- 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel, silent;
filmed at Lake George, NY. Edwin Thanhouser (Film Company) released the
movie November 10th.
- 1911 "The Pathfinder," silent, directed by
Laurence Trimble with Wallace Reid [Stewart, Vol. I, p. 215]
- 1911 "Leather Stocking Tales" silent, with
Wallace Reid [Steward, Vol. I, p. 215]
- 1911 "The Deerslayer," two reels, silent,
Vitagraph production starring Hal Reid with Florence Turner as
- 1913 "The Deerslayer," two reels, 2000 feet,
silent, directed by Hal Reid and Lawrence Trimble, Vitagraph production, May 7,
1913 [release of the 1911 film]; scenario by Larry Trimble.
- 1914 "The Spy," Universal, 4 reels, silent,
directed by Otis Turner, screenwriter James Dayton.
- 1914 "The Last of the Mohicans." [Friar, p.
- 1920 "The Last of the Mohicans," Associated
Producers, six reels (5,720 ft.), silent, black and white with color tints;
copyright: 16 November 1920; directed by Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown;
screenplay: Robert A. Dillon; cinematographers: Philip R. Dubois, Charles E. Van
Enger; shot in California on location at Big Bear Lake, Malibu, Lake Arrowhead,
and Yosemite National Park; art director: Floyd Mueller.
- 1920 "Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking)," Luna-Film,
12 reels, silent, black and white, directed by Arthur Wellin, screenplay: Robert
Heymann. filmed in the German forests of the Rhine valley with Hungarian actor
Bela Lugosi as Uncas. [released in two parts: "Der Wildtoter (The
Deerslayer)," and "Der Letzte der Mohikaner (The Last of the
- 1921 "The Deerslayer," 5 reels. [an American
release of "Lederstrumpf"]
- 1922 "Last of the Mohicans," Associated Producers,
silent, directed by Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown. [Parish, p.
182] [this may be a typo; probably the 1920 film]
- 1923 "The Deerslayer," Cameo Distributing, 60
minutes, black and white, directed by Arthur Wellin. [Pitts, p.
- 1923 "The Deerslayer," Mingo Pictures, Cameo
Distributing Co.; silent, black & white, 5 reels, 35 mm.;
Educational-historical drama. ["No information about the precise nature of
this film has been found." Munden, p. 176]; film also noted by Connelly, p. 339;
this may have been the American release of the German "Der Wildtoter (The
- 1924 "Leatherstocking," Pathé Exchange, 10 episode
serial, directed by George B. Seitz; written by Robert Dillon; release date: 23
March 1924. [a conflation of material from "The Last of the Mohicans" and
from "The Deerslayer"]
- 1926 "The Last of the Mohee-cans."
[Chaplinesque comedy with spoof version of the novel/films] [Barker, p.
- 1932 "The Last of the Mohicans," Mascot Studios,
serial, sound, 12 chapters (Ch. One in 3 reels; Chs. 2-12 in 2 reels), 13
minutes each directed by B. Reeves Easton and Ford Beebe; produced by Nat
Levine; supervising editor: Wyndham Gittens; screenplay: Colbert Clark,
John (Jack) Francis Natteford, Ford Beebe, and Wyndham Gittens; photography:
Ernest Miller and Jack Young; film editor: Ray Snyder; sound engineer: George
Lowerre, released: May 17, 1932. [first sound version by Little Mascot
Films proved expensive because of the problems of outdoor sound recording and
Harry Carey's insistence on receving $10,000 for his part; most of the
water battles and races were filmed at Sherwood Lake or on the Kern River, CA;
negatives have been transferred by Screen Gems to acetate and are generally
available for television distribution]
- 1936 "The Last of the Mohicans," United Artists,
black and white, 10 reels, 91 minutes, sound. Directed by George B. Seitz;
Associate Director: Wallace Fox; produced by Edward Small for Reliance Pictures;
copyright by Reliance Productions, 18 August 1936; release date: 4 September
1936; screenplay: Philip Dunne, with adaptation by John L. Balderston, Paul
Perez, and Daniel Moore; film editors: Jack Dennis and Harry Marker; music
director: Roy Webb; art director: John Ducasse Schulze; research director:
Edward P. Lambert; sound: John L. Cass; costume designer: Franc Smith; camera:
Robert Planck; shot on the Upper-Iverson Ranch, CA.
- 1941 "The Pioneers," Monogram Pictures, sound,
black and white, 58 minutes. Directed by Albert Herman; producer: Edward Finney;
screenwriter: Charles Anderson; photography: Marcel A. Le Picard; editor: Fred
Bain; original music by Frank Sanucci, copyright: 1941.
- 1943 "The Deerslayer," Republic Pictures, black
and white, 67 minutes, producers: P. S. Harrison and E. B. Deer; directed by Lew
Landers; assistant director: Eddie Stein; screenwriters: Harrison and Deer;
adaptation: John W. Kraft; camera: Arthur Martinelli; editor: George McGuire;
filmed at Lake Arrowhead, CA; copyright: 1943.
- 1947 "The Last of the Redmen," Columbia Pictures,
color, 78 minutes, directed by George Sherman; produced by Sam Katzman;
screenplay: Herbert Dalmas and George H. Plympton; camera (Vitacolor): Ray
Fernstrom, Ira H. Morgan; editor: James Sweeney; music director: Misha
Bakaleinkoff; art director: Paul Palmentola; released: August 1, 1947.
[British title: "Last of the Redskins"]
- 1947 "The Prairie," Screen Guild, sound, black and
white, 68 minutes, adapted and directed by Frank Wisbar. An Edward F.
Finney production; screenplay: Arthur St. Claire; photography: James S. Brown,
Jr.; editor: Douglas W. Bagler; music: Alexander Steinert; copyright: 1948 by
- 1948 "The Return of the Mohicans," [1932
serial condensed into a feature-length film]
- 1949 "Last of the Redskins," Columbia.
[original title "Last of the Mohicans," per Enser, p. 718. This most
likely is the 1947 "Last of the Redmen" rather than LOM]
- 1950 "Leather Stocking Tales," United Artists,
director: Phil Karlson. [also issued with the title "The Tomahawk Trail"
per Enser, p. 719]
- 1952 "The Pathfinder," Columbia Pictures,
technicolor, 78 minutes, directed by Sidney Salkow; produced by Sam Katzman;
screenwriter: Robert E. Kent; camera: Henry Freulich; editor: Jerome
Thoms; music: Mischa Bakalienkoff; art director: Paul Palmentola; set designer: Sidney Clifford; previewed: Dec. 9, 1952; copyright: 1953.
- 1957 "The Deerslayer," Twentieth Century-Fox Film
Corporation, Cinemascope, DeLuxe Color, 76 minutes; filmed at Bass Lake in the High Sierras; producer/director: Kurt Neumann; screenplay: Neumann and Carroll Young; music: Paul Sawtell and Bert Shefter; art designer: Theobold Holsopple; camera: Karl Struss; editor: Jodie Copelan. [released by Productions Unlimited, 1963]
- 1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans,"
Television Programs of America, Canadian Normandie Productions, 39 episode
syndicated TV series, directed by Sam Newfield and Sidney Salkow; produced by Sigmund Neufeld; syndicated: April 1957 to Summer 1958; shot in the wilds of Toronto, Canada.
- 1962 International Television Corporation,
distributed to TV stations four TV movies: "Along the Mohawk Trail," "The
Red Man and the Renegades," "The Long Rifle and the Tomahawk," and
"The Pathfinder and the Mohican" based on the 1957 series "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans" television series; John Hart played Hawkeye, Lon Chaney, Jr. played Chingachgook.
- 1963 A Mexican production company filmed "Last of
the Mohicans." [Magill, Vol. 2, p. 650]
- 1964 "The Pathfinder and the Mohican,"
International TV Corporation (ITC), black and white, 90 minutes, telefeature,
directed by Sam Newfield. [paste-up made from three segments of the cheap
1956-57 syndicated TV series: "Hawkeye and the Last of the
- 1965 "Der Letzte Mohikaner [The Last Mohican],"
International Germania Film/Cineproduzioni Associate, cinemascope, color, 89
minutes; directed by Harald Reinl; producer: Franz Thierry; script: Joachim
Bartsch; camera: Ernst Kalinke and Francisco Marin. [alternate title: "The
- 1965 "Uncas, el fin de una raza" [Uncas, the End
of One Race], Ital Caribe Cinematografica (Spain/Italy), 85 minutes, color,
directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo
Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora.
- 1965 "L'Ultimo dei Mohicani" [The Last Mohican],
85 minutes, color, directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry;
cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora.
- 1969 "Die Lederstrumpferzählungen (The
Leatherstocking Tales)," mini TV series, color, language: French; directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit; writers: Pierre Gaspard-Huit, Jacques
Rémy, and Walter Ulbrich; original music: George Grigoriu and Robert Mekllin; camera: André Zarra; costume design: Joseph Bogos; make-up: Rosalia Bartha and Nicole Félix; sound editor: Heiner Harss; production design: Joseph Bogos; 13 episodes.
- 1969 "Bas de cuir," produced by: Teledis (French),
Buftea (Bucarest), ORTF (French); directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre
Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu, 13 episode TV series.
- 1969 "Ultimul Mohican," (Romania/France),
directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui
- 1969 "Vinatorul de cerbi [Blame the
Stag/Deerslayer]," (Romania), directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergiu Nicolaescu.
- 1971 "Last of the Mohicans," BBC-TV Sunday
children's serial, directed by David Maloney, produced by John McRae, written by Harry Green; eight 45 minute episodes, filmed at Glen Affric in the Scottish Highlands, no musical score. [made available for American TV in 13 episodes of 26 minutes each]
- 1972 "The Last of the Mohicans," WNET Masterpiece
Theatre, directed by David Maloney, dramatized by Harry Green, producer: John McRae, serial produced by British Broadcasting Company, Alistair Cooke, host; eight episodes beginning 26 March 1972 and ending 14 May 1972.
- 1973 "The Pathfinder," Century Theatre Television Drama Series, directed by David Maloney, 5 episodes. A BBC adaptation of the classics, released in the United States by 20th Century-Fox; syndicated in 1973.
- 1977 "Last of the Mohicans," J. Arthur Rank Film Distribution. [video]. [Enser (1928-1986), p. 155]
- 1977 "Last of the Mohicans," Schick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 100 minutes, (cut 10 minutes when syndicated) [the Classics Illustrated (comic book) logo appeared at the opening and at the end] directed by James L. Conway; executive producer: Charles E. Sellier, Jr.; producer:
Robert Stambler; teleplay: Stephen Lord; music: Bob Summers; art director:
Charles Bennett; camera: Henning Schellerup; editors: Jim Webb and Steve
Michael. [November 23, 1977]
- 1978 "The Deerslayer," motion picture, Classics
Illustrated, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway.
Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels, 87 minutes, sound/color, 16 mm.; produced by Bill Conford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer.
- 1979 "The Deerslayer," Schick Sunn Classics
/NBC-TV, color, 78 minutes, directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay: S. S.
Schweitzer; Executive producers: Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway; producer: Bill Conford; music: Andrew Belling and Bob Summers; art director: Scott Lindquist; camera: Paul Hipp; filmed on location in Utah; editor: Carl Kress. [most likely the 1978 film above – release date was 18 December 1978]
- 1979 "The Last of the Mohicans," Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 4 reels, 97 minutes, sound/color, 16 mm.
- 1979 "The Leatherstocking Tales," Metropolitan Pittsburgh Broadcasting, WQED, "Once Upon a Classic," PBS TV, mini-series, 3 parts, 2 episodes each, producer: Bob Walsh; directed by Nick Sgarro; written by John O'Toole,
- 1985 "Last of the Mohicans," Schick Sunn, 97minute, made-for-television film, directed by James L. Conway, rated R. [Klisz, p. 1583, probably the 1977 Schick Sunn TV film]
- 1987 The Last of the Mohicans," full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, release of the 1976 motion picture; adaptation: Lewis Draper; animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington;
camera: Jan Cregan; voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, Frank Welker.
- 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," 20th Century Fox (USA); Morgan Creek International (France), 14 reels (10980 feet) 122 minutes,
35mm, sound, color, rated R, produced by Michael Mann and Hunt Lowry, and
directed by Michael Mann. Premier August 11, 1992 in Paris [where Cooper
lived from 1826-1833]; opened in U.S. September 25; general release: November 6; screenplay by M. Mann and Christopher Crowe also based on United Artists' 1936 version by Philip Dunne; executive producer: James G. Robinson, cinematographers (Delux color): Dante Spmotti, Doug Milsome; filmed in North Carolina; music: Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman; editors: Don Hoenig, Arthur Schmidt; production design: Wolf Kroeger; art designers: Richard Holland, Robert Guerra; set design: Karl Martin, Masako Masuda: set decoration: Jim Erickson, James V. Kent; sound (Dolby): Simon Kaye, Paul Massey, Doug Hemphill, Mark Smith, Chris Jenkins; stunt coordinator: Mickey Gilbert; copyright USA: 12 September 1992; copy 2 is the international release copy (no subtitles for Native American Languages): 22 September 1992.
- 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," Barr Films, 45 minutes, VHS. [animated]
- 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," St. Lauren, Canada, Madacy Music Group, 1992, two videocassettes (110min.), black and white, ½ in, VHS format, TV Classic Collection. [four episodes from the Canadian television series with John Hart and Lon Chaney: "The Truant," "False Face," "Winter Passage," and "The Reconing."
- 1992 "The Last of the Mohicans," Van Nuys,
CA: Live Home Video, distributor: Laser Connection, Scott's Valley, CA,
one videodisc (91 min.) extended play CLV utilizing CX noise reduction,
black and white. [originally produced by Reliance Productions and released
by United Artists in 1936]
- 1994 "Hawkeye," Syndicated serial of 22 (60 minute) episodes released in September 1994 for television.
- 1996 "The Pathfinder," Production Company: Leatherstocking Productions, Distributor: Hallmark Home Entertainment; directed by Donald Shebib; written by James Mitchell Miller and Thomas W. Lynch; producer: John Danylkiw; photography: Curtis Petersen, shot at Fort Erie, Ontario, Niagara Gorge, and Niagara-on-the-Lake; edited by Bill Goddard; casting: Susan Forest; music: Reg Powell; costume design: Jana Stern; production designer: David Daves; prop-mistress: Cheryl Junkin; hairdresser Rhonda Amcill; armorer: Charlie Taylor; video, stereo, 110 minutes; PG 13; aired Thursday August 27 through Wednesday September 16th.
Player's names were not usually given In early
films because film makers felt the identity of artists was unimportant.
Later, as the film industry developed, only the star's names were used. Giving credit to all technical and acting personnel came much later. The following cast listings are taken from the sources in the bibliography, hence, some lists of casts may be incomplete.
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1909 "Leather Stocking"
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Biograph Studios, directed by D. W. Griffith. George O. Nicholls as the Col., Marion Leonard and Linda Arvidson as his nieces, Mack Sennett as Big Serpent, Owen Moore as Leather Stocking, James Kirkwood as the Trapper, William (Billy) A. Quirk, Frank Powell, and Anthony O'Sullivan as soldiers, Guy Hedlund, Arthur Johnson, and Frank Evans as Indians, Edith Haldeman as a child, Adele De Garde, and Verner Clarges. Baker [p. 223] indicated that Henry Walthal's playing Hawkeye and Linda Arvison playing Cora were educated guesses.
Synopsis: Story line has the Col. and his two nieces taking
a short cut to Fort George accompanied by a scout and led by the traitorous
Indian Big Serpent. When they rest at a mountain stream, Big Serpent and the
scout lead the horses in the shade of the wood. The scout returns to tell
Leather Stocking and Uncas that he was attacked and that the horses were killed. Leather Stocking and Uncas volunteer to lead the party to the fort. They are almost surrounded by Indians but escape to the stockade where a spirited battle occurs. When only two charges are left to fight the bloodthirsty Indians, Leather Stocking disguises himself as a bear and swims the torturous river at the back of the stockade knowing that the Indians would not waste bullets on game when the enemy is present. He falls exhausted at the soldiers' quarters. The soldiers arrive in the nick of time at the stockade to save the survivors being burned at the stake. Uncas
accompanies the party on their way and the film ends with his standing alone on the brow of a hill -- the last of the Mohicans. [The Moving Picture World, Vol. 5, 14 (October 2, 1909), p. 457]
- 1. The Moving Picture World, Vol. 5, 15
(October 9, 1909), p. 489. ["A Biograph rendering ... a free
rendering, it is true, with no attempts to follow the story closely, but the
favorite characters are all there and the dramatic incidents which are
woven into the story are repeated..." "The photography is good ..."
"One enters into the spirit of the characters ... It might be well,
therefore, to consider this rather more than an illustration of a popular
- 2. Sultanik, p. 98. ["Memorable films like Tol'able David and The Last of the Mohicans seem to mirror Griffith's pathos, his lush pictorial eye, his faith in his character's heroic immutability."]
- 3. Variety, signed "Rush" (October 2, 1909). ["One of the best things that has been shown on the animated sheet for a long time is the race and final victorious fight between the former-scout of fiction and his pursuing Indians through raging rapids. The series is a capital example of the modern stage manager for moving pictures, whose stage is the wide stretch of nature."]
1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel silent
Powers released the movie on August 1st. [filmed much of the
plot, but allowed Cora Munro to live]
- 1. The Moving Picture World, 9 (July
29, 1911) pp. 230, 232. [synopsis]
1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel silent
Directed by Edwin Thanhouser. Released November 10th. [follows closely the original plot, but allowed Cora to live; much of the script was filmed at Lake George, NY: and many ads claimed their film was "punctuated with vistas of scenic beauty."]
- 1. New York Times, "Is the Moving
Picture to be the Play of the Future" (August 20, 1911).
[Vitagraph listed "Leatherstocking Tales" among great books of literature
they were filming; sent their stock company to Cooperstown for
- 2. The Moving Picture World, 10
(November 4, 1911), p. 414. [synopsis]
1920 "Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking)"
Luna-Film, 12 reels, 73 minutes, directed by Arthur Wellin, filmed in Germany with Emil Memelok as Deerslayer, Bela Lugosi as Uncas, and Herta Heden, Gottfried Kraus, Edward Eyseneck, Margot Sokolowska [released in two parts: "Der Wildtoter (The Deerslayer)," and "Der Letzte Mohikaner (The Last
- 1. Everson (1969), pp. 88.
[still of Bela Lugosi as Uncas in the 1922 German version of "Last of the
Associated Producers [first film], six reels, silent, directors: Maurice Tourneur and Clarence L. Brown [suffering ptomaine, pleurisy, and falling off a parallel bar kept Tourneur in bed for 3 months hence Brown did much of the direction, but Tourneur scrutinize all the rushes, gave the last word on retakes, and directed most of the studio scenes], screenplay by Robert A. Dillon, shot at Big Bear Lake and Yosemite Valley, CA. Cast included: Harry Lorraine as Hawkeye, Barbara Bedford as Cora Munro, Lillian Hall as Alice, Henry Woodward as Maj. Duncan Heyward, James Gordon as Col. Munro, George Hackathorne as Capt. Randolph, Nelson McDowell as David Gamut, Theodore Lerch as Chingachgook, Jack F. McDonald as Tamenunde, Sydney Deane as Gen. Webb, Albert Roscoe as Uncas, Lou (Lew) Short, Frank Losee, Boris Karloff as a marauding Indian, and Wallace Beery as Magua.
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Synopsis:The film opens with Chingachgook and Uncas looking over the valley below. It cuts to Fort Edward and an interior scene with Cora playing the harp for her beau, the slightly effeminate Capt. Randolph (who was created for the film), Maj. Heyward, and Alice. Uncas arrives at the door with news of enemy movements and then Magua with a message from Col. Munro. Story line has Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas outwitting Magua and his Indians to get the girls to Fort Henry. Following Capt. Randolf's treason and his death (as he hides in an ammunition dump which is blown up), the fort falls. After the massacre Magua pursues and captures Cora and Alice. The last reel contains the climatic trial at the Deleware camp with Talemund. Magua takes Cora into the wilderness. As Cora fights off sleep on the top of the cliff, Magua struggles with her and repeatedly stabs at Cora's arms as she dangles from the edge of the cliff and ultimately falls to her death. Uncas tries to save her but after a gallant struggle is killed and dies reaching for her hand (in the book they both die on the ledge). Hawkeye shoots Magua at the top of the falls and he washes over a waterfall "more than a thousand feet high." The film ends with Chingachgook in silhouette standing vigil by Uncas's grave. The gory scenes of mothers murdered and infants tomahawked were taken from D. W. Griffith's massacre. Stills indicate that the "bear" scene was shot but cut from the film.
- 1. Adele Whitely Fletcher, Motion
Picture Magazine (April, 1921). ["... we are
grateful to Mr. Tourneur for his sympathetic handling of this famous tale -- he has remained faithful to the man in whose mind it was born..."]
- 2. Anderson, p. 100. ["... they created a narrative that moved fluidly between exciting action scenes and moments of tender lyricism, between the particular and the abstract; they used light and shadow as symbolic motif in contrasting good and evil nonwhites; they told a romantic story that played to the audience's fascination with the horror of miscegenation."]
- 3. Blum, 1953, p. 189. [still of Albert Roscoe, Barbara Bedford, Lillian Hall, and Harry Lorraine; still of Wallace Berry]
- 4. Brownlow, p. 144. ["In The Last of the Mohicans we made much use of lighting effects and weather atmosphere. We used smokepots to create the suggestion of sunrays striking through woodland mist. The rainstorm in the forest was simply a fire engine and an hose. We got clouds because we waited for them ... When the girls are escaping from the Indian ambush, I put the camera on a perambulator."
- 5. Everson (1978), p. 151. ["Tourneur's The Last of the Mohicans was a masterpiece." "But the beauty of his Last of the Mohicans was not achieved at the expense of story values. It is still a rugged adventure tale, faithful to the spirit of the Fenimore Cooper original, with a starkly tragic ending and some of the most savage Indian massacre scenes ever filmed. ... it told the whole story, without appearing to hurry, in a mere six reels."]
- 6. Fenin, p. 167. ["Tourneur's version of The Last of the Mohicans was by far the best of the many versions of this James Fenimore Cooper Tale."]
- 7. Film Daily (November 28, 1920), p. 6.
- 8. Franklin, "The Last of the Mohicans, 1922," pp. 42-43. ["I venture to say, the best screen treatment of any of the James Fenimore Cooper stories." "The Fort William Henry massacre sequence was a real thriller -- savage, ferocious, spectacularly staged." "wonderfully virile and exciting fare, with never a dull moment." "The camera work was flawless." Still of Harry Lorraine rescuing Lillian Hall from Huron Indian; still of Barbara Bedford playing the harp; still of Albert Roscoe and party hiding behind rocks; list of cast on p. 253]
- 9. Friar, p. 114. [Wallace Beery "... played the creature in authentic comic strip style."]
- 10. Maltin, p. 757. ["First-rate silent drama. Look for Boris Karloff in a bit part as an Indian."]
- 11. Mantle, Burns, Photoplay, Vol. 19, 5 (April 1921), p. 78. ["If we had a National Cinematographic library ... I certainly should include The Last of the Mohicans"]
- 12. The Moving Picture World , "This Makes It Unanimous," Vol. 47, 6 (December 11, 1920), p. 684. [Five lines each are quoted from six very positive reviews]
- 13. Ibid, Vol. 47, 6 (December 11, 1920), p. 771. [cast is listed]
- 14. National Board of Review (December 1920), pp. 2, 5. ["The Last of the Mohicans is a truly exceptional picture..."To begin with, it is probably the first really adequate photodramatizing of a period in our own history which is epic..." "His picture gives to us not only an entertainment, a thrill, in the truest, most direct sense; it gives to us a fine bit of history and picture interpretation as well..." "The composition of The Last of the Mohicans is superb. It ranges in almost exact impression from that of the color sketches of Remington to that of the drawings of Doré."]
- 15. New York Times, "THE SCREEN" (January 3,
1921), p. 20:2. ["Why did Mr. Tourneur try to make an Indian out of
Wallace Berry? He is the bad man of the story and is certainly
sufficiently evil looking. But Indian! And Albert Roscoe, the noble
red man, the last of the Mohicans?" "Many of the "Indians" in the "crowd
scenes" look much more like African than American aborigines. This
miscasting has seriously weakened the picture." "There are too many
subtitles," "There is no fault to find with the casting of the white
characters." "Mr. Tourneur has made an extraordinary picture
seriously marred in one particular."]
- 16. Parish and Pitts, p. 181. [still
of Barbara Bedford, Albert Roscoe, Harry Lorraine and Lillian
- 17. Pratt, pp. 280-281. [excerpt from "The Shadow Stage" by Burns Mantle]
- 18. Laurence Reid, Motion Picture News, Vol.
22, 24 (December 4, 1920), p. 4343. ["Maurice Tourneur's first picture for
Associated Producers." "... a picture which will be talked about as
a masterpiece of its kind." "He has kept faith with the author's memory by
humanizing the characters and visualizing scenes just as they are depicted in the book." "expert photography and tinting" the "massacre is stark
in its realism," "This is Cooper to the life." Magua "pushes the
girl to her death and the fight with Uncas is a thriller..." "Wallace
Berry as Magua presents a study in cunning, malicious devilishness that is quite as Cooper painted it." "It's the greatest Indian picture ever
- 19. Robinson, p. 109. ["A somewhat static, "picturesque" film, magnificently photographed by Phillip Dubois and
Charles Van Enger, it is sensitive in its handling; and the spectacular
climactic struggle on the rocks is succeeded by an exceedingly touching final scene of the death and burial of the white girl and the Indian scout who have fallen in love."]
- 20. Robert E. Sherwood, Life (February 3, 1921), p. 177. ["We wish that all those who delight in sneering at the movies could be compelled by act of Congress to see Maurice Tourneur's production, The Last of the Mohicans. They would under go what is generally known as a rude awakening. For here is a photoplay that combines magnificent pictorial beauty with real dramatic power--one that can hold the spectator's attention without insulting his intelligence..." "The fact that Cooper's famous novel has been rather badly mauled in the course of adaptation had little effect upon our enjoyment of the picture. We could not help feel, a trifle timidly, perhaps, that the mauling process had rather tended to improve the original; but of course we wouldn't want to say that out loud."]
- 21. Anthony Slide, (Magill, Vol. 2). ["Tourneur chose Wallace Berry to portray Magua (and a less likely and more melodramatic Indian it is hard to imagine)," p. 651" ... one is impressed ... by the composition of the film, the handling of the massacre, Cora's murder and the fight to the death between Uncas and Magua. The men struggle in one of the most realistic fight sequences ever transferred to film..." p. 652]
- 22. Sultanik, p. 98-99. ["Tourneur is often remembered as a director of children's fantasies ... , but The Last of the Mohicans remains an enduring example of American film art."]
- 23. Variety, "Last of the Mohicans" (January 7, 1920). ["Mr. Tourneur may understand the tale; so may those Cooper fans who read the book once a year..." "To the ordinary screen spectator the results have become mere chaos; a series of episodes in which the warring forces are not always to be recognizable." "What Mr. Tourneur has made of the book is just a series of fights and scenes of violence." "The director subordinates Hawkeye ... and makes his outstanding figures Uncas ... Cora ... and Magua..." "... a British traitor discloses their weak position ... Munro surrenders on Montcalm's pledge for the safety of the women and children." "However, someone gets firewater to the redskins and they take part in an orgy of blood and suggested rapine that was terrible enough in print but becomes unspeakable in a picture." "... there are excellent trick photographs at this point with sensational fights between Uncas and Magua
for her possession, ending in the death of all three. So it could scarcely
be looked upon as a `happy ending'"]
- 24. Weitzel, Edward, "Cooper's 'The Last of the Mohicans' Finely Filmed by Maurice Tourneur," The Moving Picture World, 47 (December 4, 1920), p. 589. ["Sensitive souls who refuse to face the facts of life may find the massacre at the fort too realistic … The locations are often of great beauty … First honors should go to Wallace Berry for a forceful
impersonatioon of the savage villain, Magua. Miss Bedford's evident lack
of experience weakens her performance of Cora … Albert Roscoe is a reasonably good Uncas, and Lillian Hall an appealing Alice Munro." Three stills from the picture are included]
- 25. Wid's Daily (Sunday, November 28, 1920), p. 2. ["Tourneur has done it again. "The Last of the Mohicans" has resulted in thrills galore." Outstanding among them is the battle on a cliff several thousand feet high between Magua and the heroine and between Magua and Uncas. "They put on a massacre that probably has never been equalled before the camera. There is shooting; knifing; tomahawking,… they take infants out of the arms of mothers and tomahawk them right before you; they crack soldier's heads with the butt end of muskets without hesitation." "There is an unnecessary sequence at the finish … when incidents relative to their burial are unduly prolonged, but other wise the story moves rapidly enough
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1932 "The Last of the Mohicans"
Mascot Studios, sound [1st sound version of LOM], 12 episode cliffhanger serial directed by Reeves (Breezy) Eas(t)on and Ford Beebe with Yakima Cannutt as actor/stuntman playing Black Fox; starring Harry Carey as Hawk-eye, Hobart Bosworth as the Sagamore (Chingachgook), Robert Kortman as Magua, Junior Coghlin (Frank Coghlan, Jr.) as Uncus [who is portrayed as 13 years old: hence no love entanglements], blond Lucille Browne and dark-haired Edwina Booth as the daughters, Walter Miller as Maj. Heyward, Walter McGrail as Dulac, Nelson McDowell as David Gamut, Edward Hearn as Col. Munro, Mischa Auer as Gen. Montcalm, Chief Big Tree as an Indian,
Joan Gale as Red Wing, Tully Marshall as the Courier, Jewel Richford, and Al
Cavan. Chapter Titles: 1. Unknown; 2. Flaming Arrows; 3. Rifles or
Tomahawks; 4. Riding with Death; 5. Red Shadows; 6. The Lure of Gold; 7. The
Crimson Trail; 8. The Tide of Battle; 9. A Redskin's Honor; 10. The Enemy's
Stronghold; 11. Paleface Magic; 12. The End of the Trail.
Synopsis:Story line has Cora, Alice, their singing teacher, and Major Heyward journey through enemy territory. Hawkeye, the Mohicans, or various members of the party are captured, killed, blown up, burned, etc. at the end of each chapter. The daughters are captured at least a dozen times by Magua or by Dulac and then rescued. Uncas, his father, and Hawkeye see that justice is done. The Sagamore is killed by Dulac and Uncas performs the rituals befitting the last of the Mohicans. The actors spoke their lines with self-conscious deliberation (as they did in many of the early talkies); the photography was often poor: the fight scene on the cliff in the last episode was shot on a cloudy day and turned out gray and murky; the massacre of the Mohican tribe in the first reel remains a memorable
- 1. Everson (1969), p. 169, [still of Hobart Bosworth being held prisoner with Bob Kortman threatening Harry Carey]
- 2. Harmon, p. 324. ["Last of the Mohicans may not have been great art, but it was a great action picture of the 1930's, providing many thrills set during the American frontier days, and helping to establish the sound career of Harry Carey..."]
- 3. Malcomson, Robert M., "The Embryonic Years (1929-1933)," Those Enduring Matinee Idols, Vol. 2 (December 1969 - January 1970), p. 14. [listed cast; "Reeves Eason was "fired" during
the filming by Mascot-owner, Nat Levine, simply because he arrived at the studio three hours late after working until 3 o'clock in the morning."]
- 4. Pitts, p. 217. ["Slow moving serial version of the James Fenimore Cooper novel although Harry Carey is good as Hawkeye and Robert Kortman makes an excellent evil Magua."]
- 5. Tuska, 1972, Views and Reviews, pp. 22-29. [detailed description of each chapter; "... the serial stands up well, not least of all because of the crude poetry of the speech which was carried over effectively from the book and the passion of the players." p. 24 stills of Edwina Booth and blond Lucile Browne surounded with arrows with their backs against a tree, and Harry Carey (Hawkeye), Hobart Bosworth (The Sagamore), and Junior Coughlin (Unca) meet at Dulac's camp; p. 27 stills of Hawkeye and Nelson McDowell (David Gamut) hiding from the pursuing Hurons in a rocky cleft, and of all "the good guys" just before they sieze the powder wagons]
- 6. _____, 1982 ["The "high budget" entry that year, ... was (Nathaniel) Levine's next entry, The Last of the Mohicans. This was the only literary "Classic" Mascot would ever attempt to adapt for the screen and in one sense, given the picaresque nature of the original novel, perhaps an episodic treatment worked best." p. 64: still of Walter Miller, Lucile Browne, Nelson McDowell, Edwina Booth, Harry Carey, Hobarth Bosworth, and Junior Coughlin; p. 195 lists cast of 1932 "Last of the Mohicans" and the 12 Chapter Titles]
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United Artists, black and white, sound, an Edward Small production directed by George B. Seitz, 91 minutes. The cast, starring Randolph Scott as Hawk-eye, included Henry Wilcoxon as Maj. Duncan Heyward, Hugh Buckler as Col. Munro, Binnie Barnes as Alice, Heather Angel as Cora, Philip Reed as Uncas, Bruce Cabot as Magua, Robert Barrat as Chingachgook, Willard Robertson as Capt. Winthrop, Frank McGlynn, Sr. as David Gamut, Will Stanton as Jenkins (Heyward's orderly), William V. Mong as Sachem, Olaf Hytten as King George II, Claude King as Duke of Marlborough, Lumsden Hare: Gen. Abercrombie, Reginald Barlow as Duke of Newcastle, Lionel Belmore: Patroon, William Stack: Gen. Montcalm, Art Du Puis: DeLevis, Ian MacLaren: William Pitt, Olaf Hytten: King George II, Lionel Belmore: Patroon, Harry Cording: Trapper, and John Sutton: British Officer.
Return to Table of Contents
Synopsis:Story line has most of the novel's incidents in
the film. Scott holds back the Hurons as the others reach the safety
of the fort which is subsequently overwhelmed. Scott is captured,
tortured, and to be burned at the stake when Wilcoxon (Heyward) arrives with
troops to save Scott at the last minute. Hawkeye and Alice and Uncas and
Cora fall in love in this version; Magua knocks Uncas off a cliff and Cora, his white lover, jumps after him; Chingachgook kills Magua; and Hawkeye goes to Alice his women. Many of the sets (shot on a sound stage) looked
unreal especially the Indian camp. Cora was portrayed as a blond and Alice
donned dark-hair. This was the first talkie to feature Indian "grunts and
- 1. Agate, pp. 132-134. [1936 reprint from The Tatler on "Last of the Mohicans:" "The first thing to be said about the film is that it is a great muddle." "Hawk-Eye, for example, strikes me as having no kind of relation even to such reality as is to be found in Fenimore Cooper." "... whereas Uncas and Chingagook seem to me to be very fine indeed, and to wear about them some of the primeval dignity of Man." "Nor can I discover whether this new film is an extraordinary masterpiece or perfect tosh."]
- 2. Blum, 1958, p. 8. [still of Heather Angel, Phillip Reed, Bruce Cabot; still of Randolph Scott, Phillip Reed, Henry Wilcoxon, Binnie Barnes, and Heather Angel]
- 3. Cashon, Charles A. "Meet a Man Who
Plays with Fire, "New York Times (December 3, 1939). [Lee Zavitz,
power man for the studios, "is proudest of his work on "The Last of the
Mohicans" several years ago. He dynamited a twenty-foot parapet on which
stood six stunt men. He arranged his power charges so the parapet seemed
to dissolve under the men who rode the falling wall down like a horse, landing without a scratch."]
- 4. Churchill, Douglas W., "Hollywood Letter: The
Studios Embark on a Spending Spree," New York Times (September 15, 1935).
[a roll-call of pictures costing in excess of $750,000 includes United Artists' "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 5. The Commonweal, Vol. 24 (September 11, 1936), p. 497. ["Sturdy, exciting, fighting dramatization ... true to the author's idea of the bitter struggle of a new world ... Some of the characters are more polished than Mr. Cooper would have them ... The grisly massacres and walloping rescues occur with expectancy."]
- 6. Crisler, B. R. New York Times, "Gossip of the Films" (November 15, 1936). [Randolph Scott disliked the flowery Cooper dialogue and thought it incongruous for Hawkeye who was reared in the wilderness by the Mohicans. He was able to get some of his speeches modified]
- 7. Dehn, Paul (The Sunday Referee), "The Last of the Mohicans," World Film News, Vol. 1 (November 1936), "Review of Reviews," p. 18. ["Its plot has the virtue of utter umpossibility… The daughters are lost, waylaid, trapped, rescued, re-trapped, half-burnt at the
stake, and re-rescued. One, in a brief moment of authenticity, dies.
The other lives to marry Hawkeye,"]
- 8. Dunne, Philip, p. 35. ["The Last of the Mohicans ... is only a pallid ghost of what John and I originally wrote. Ours was a full-bodied screenplay, combining adventure and excitement with what we considered some respectable poetry in the love story between the patrician English girl and the young Mohican brave. Above all, we painted an authentic picture of colonial America in the eighteenth century." After seeing the first week's dailies, he wrote, "The film was appalling. In our absence, Eddie (Small) apparently had succumbed to the itch many producers have to tamper... I don't know what writers he had hired, but they had succeeded in turning our authentic eighteenth-century piece into a third-rate Western. The characters even spoke to each other in twentieth-century colloquialisms, and each had been rendered banal beyond belief."]
- 9. Film Daily, Vol. 70, 35 (August 11, 1936). [four page color ad with stills]
- 10. Ibid, "Reviews of New Films," Vol. 70, 36 (August 12, 1936), p. 9. ["all around good production... A topnotch cast, plenty of suspense and thrill sequences, effective building up of the romantic interest..."]
- 11. Garfield, p. 210. ["As film version of Fenimore Cooper go, this was among the better efforts -- a big production with plenty of action. It was produced by Sam Katzman, who dictated the use of an odd color process, like that of a badly tuned color TV set: the faces were mostly green, the sky brown and the leaves purple.]
- 12. Halliwell, Leslie. Halliwell's Film Guide. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985, p. 559. ["Vigorous if rough-and-ready western, later remade (poorly) as Last of the Redmen and as a Canadian TV series."]
- 13. Hardy, p. 60. [still of Randolph Scott]
- 14. Hollywood Reporter, Vol. XXXIV, 41 (August 8, 1936), p. 3. ["As entertainment it is a gorgeously glorified western and as history it is an authentic adventure tale..." "The picture's one marked fault at present is its length." "George B. Seitz has distinguished himself by his sure and virile direction of this kaleidoscope action piece..."]
- 15. Ibid, Vol. XXXIV, 46 (August 14,1936). [stills of cast in costume and thanks to tech staff]
- 16. McCarthy, Gus, "'Mohicans' an American Classsic," Motion Picture Herald (July 18, 1936), pp. 16 -17. ["Entertaining as the novel is in the printed original, it does not lend itself readily to adaptation for screen puropses." "There are no smash names in that cast. It is, rather, a group hand picked…" Barnes and Angel had met with success in British films, Henry Wilcoxon and Hugh Buckler are also English, and Hawkeye is played by a typical American, Randolph Scott. Included are five stills from the movie.]
- 17. Maltin, p. 757. ["Effective and exciting adaptation of James Fenimore Cooper novel…"]
- 18. Mosher, John (The New Yorker), "The Last of the Mohicans," World Film News, Vol. 1 (November 1936), "Review of Reviews," p. 18. ["I fear that the usual impression will be that the studio raked in a collection of the meekest young gentlemen … dressed them up like Indians, and
told them to make whoopee."]
- 19. Motion Picture Herald, "Showmen's Reviews" (August 15, 1936), p. 54. ["Elaborately produced, panoramic vistas of natural scenic beauty … the show completely translates James Fenimore Cooper's semi-historical literary classic to screen entertainment; previewed in the Alexander Theatre, Glendale, CA]
- 20. Movshovitz, Howie, "`Mohicans' Marred by Flash Over Substance," Denver (CO) Post (September 25, 1992). ["The new film (it was also made in 1936 with Randolph Scott and, incredibly, the stiff-as-a-board Bruce Cabot from "King Kong" as Magua)..."]
- 21. Nash, p. 1615. ["Packed with excitement and adventure, this entry is undoubtedly the finest film version of any Cooper tale with Scott and Wilcoxon giving superlative performances and Cabot, as a vicious, lascivious Indian, rendering one of the most hateful roles in film history."]
- 22. Newhouse, Edward. "Sights and Sounds," The New Masses, Vol. 20, 12 (September 15, 1936), p. 27. ["... if you want your children to grow up noble, by all means take them to see the film." "Bruce Cabot's playing of Magua was about the only stupendous performance... Heather Angel's plunge off the cliff was stilted and spiritless. Phillip Reed, too, was a tame Uncas uselessly struggling against the limitations of a Harvard accent." "I debate in my mind the possibility of doing a new and mammoth Last of the Mohicans with a new and mammoth cast including W.C. Fields for Chingachgook, Warren Hymer for Major Heyward, and Allen Jenkins for Hawkeye. With slight alterations in the script, the Marx brothers could be called in for comedy
- 23. New Statesman and Nation, "`The Last of the Mohicans,' at the London Pavilion," Vol. XII (October 3, 1936), p. 470. ["Mr. Bruce Cabot ... whose own great-granddad was a Red Indian, cavorts and screams at the head of the hired tribes, as to the manner born." "Englishmen are stupid and obstinate ... American colonists are already as laconic and independent as Cal Coolidge." "Montcalm ... is suave as suave." "The difficulties of bringing so many tongues and tribes to the eyes and ears of the world, are solved by giving each race some different way of speaking English, often with ludicrous effects."]
- 24. New York Times, "On the Leasing Lot," signed: D. W. C. (November 10, 1935). [notes that Edward Small's "Last of the Mohicans" will be shot "extensively on enclosed stages."]
- 25. ____________, "Reviving an Old Tonsorial Custom" (May 24, 1936). [extensive research has resulted in authentic scalping techniques for Seltz's "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 26. _____________, "Vanishing Americans Wanted" (August 16, 1936). [scores of Indians and "Indians" flocked to United Artists' call; several humorous stories of Seitz's trying to choose between legitimate Injuns and paleface pretenders]
- 27. _____________, "THE SCREEN At the Rivoli," review signed "J. T. M." (September 3, 1936), p. 17: 3 . "We left the Rivoli yesterday with the feeling that Reliance Pictures had played fast and loose with the favorite fictional character of our youth." The writers dare to suggest a
love story for Hawkeye and even permit Alice and Hawkeye to kiss. "They
have, of course, done a grand job of bringing the high spots of the story to the screen, even if it did require technical aid from Boy Scouts to teach the modern Redskins how to whoop and holler in the accepted James Fenimore Cooper manner." "The massacre of Fort William Henry is by far the bloodiest,
scalpingest morsel of cinematic imagery ever produced, and we were consequently about ready to overlook the elisions made necessary in fitting the novel to the screen when Hollywood permitted Hawkeye to fall in love."
- 28. Rafferty, Terrence. "Brave Acts," The New Yorker, 68 (October 5, 1992), pp. 160-161. ["In terms of plot structure, the two (films: 1936 & 1992) are very close, yet the earlier film seems all story, and the new one hardly seems to be telling a story at all. Seitz treats the material as a rattling good yarn -- which in its childish way, it really is." Mann "is trying to evoke the pity and terror of tragedy, and the insanity of this project is that he attempts to produce them by purely technical means -- by graphic style, mostly."]
- 29. Saturday Review (London), Vol. 162 (October 10, 1936), p. 480.
- 30. Scholastic, Vol. 29, 3 (October 3, 1936), p. 32. ["In late years it has appeared on the screen as a silent and as a serial ... this time improved by the use of sound and the elimination of the `see-next-week' climaxes." "The Young Reviewers ... agreed that the film would be best appreciated by children of 14 or less." still of Binnie Barnes in Randolph Scott's arms]
- 31. Thomas, pp. 58-61. [adheres to the basic outlines of the novel but makes Hawkeye a little more gentlemanly; still of Hugh Buckler, Binnie Barnes, and Henry Wilcoxon, p. 59; stills of Bruce Cabot, Cora, Alice and Heyward; Uncas, Chingachgook, and Hawkeye; and two of Hawkeye, Heyward and the girls, p. 60; stills of Uncas and Cora; Hawkeye, Uncas, and
Chingachgook, p. 61]
- 32. Time, XXVIII, 10 (September 7, 1936), pp. 19-20. ["A danger of James Fenimore Cooper's works as cinema material is that, without his somber prose ... they generally boil down into an antique kind of penny-dreadful. Scenarist ... worked in shifts for more than a year to keep this from happening ... Net result is an intelligent and exciting version of a story, which, properly loaded with physical action, keeps the imprint of literature."]
- 33. Van Doren, p. 340. "It is a relative inept film, with a great many incredible Indians in it and with a bulky fable which it is not always careful to keep clear." "... and the American forest which he (Cooper) bequeathed to all romancers after him is undeniably here." "... and the death of the Colonel at Fort William Henry is a human event..."
- 34. Variety, review signed "Wear." (September 9, 1936), p. 16. ["The James Fenimore Cooper historical fiction story is transferred to the screen with surprising fidelity, though the two love stories are accentuated, quite naturally, for screen purposes." "Randolph Scott is superbly typed as the colonial scout." "Possibly his (Henry Wilcoxon) most sterling contribution in American films." Binnie Barnes ... further enhances her reputation as a fascinating actress." "Robert Barrat ... and Phillip Reed rate principal laurels." "Bruce Cabot is ... too much of the pale-face villain." "Photography uniformly strong."
- 35. Wheaton, p. 70. [script by Philip Dunne and John L. Balderston housed at the University of Southern CA]
- 36. Winter, Alice Ames, "Two Great Pictures You'll Like," Saint Nicholas, Vol. 63 (September 1936), p. 29. [There are betrayals, border warfare, hair-breadth escapes, cunning ruses, just as there really were in those adventurous days. still of Randolph Scott, Robert Barret and Phillip Reed]
- 37. World Film News , Vol. 1 (November 1936), "Review of Reviews," p. 18.
Return to Table of Contents
1947 "The Last of the Redmen"
Columbia Pictures, Viticolor, 78 minutes, directed by George Sherman, produced by Sam Katzman. Larry "Buster" Crabbe played Magua, Jon Hall as Maj. Heyward, Evelyn Ankers as Alice Munro, Jacqueline Wells (Julie Bishop) as Cora, Michael O'Shea as Hawk-Eye, Rick Vallin as Uncas, Robert "Buzz" Henry as Davy, Guy Hedlund as Gen. Munro, Frederick Worlock as Gen. Webb, Emmett Vogan as Bob Wheelwright, and Chief Many Treaties.
Synopsis: Story line has Heyward traveling with a British General's two daughters and a 12 year old son (Davy) to Lake George. Magua tells Gen. Webb that the French are attacking from the South. (This scene gives the rational for the daughter's heading for Fort William Henry which is not provided in any other film nor in the book) Hawkeye leads the group after Magua leads them astray. They abandon their horses and baggage and are chased down the river to an island where they hide in a cave. Hawkeye and Uncas go for help, and the group is captured. Hawkeye and Uncas rescue them, and they hide in an abandoned cabin. As they approach the fort, the defeated column is leaving and is attacked by the Indians. Monro is shot; Uncas kills Magua and although mortally wounded rides for help; Alice screams, runs out and is stabbed; the cavalry arrives and saves the survivors; the film ends with Hawkeye standing by Uncas' grave. The scenario took many liberties: Hawkeye talked in a thick Irish brogue; Chingachgook was dropped as a character; Davy was added for juvenile box office draw; danger was more often invited than avoided. The picture's only distinction was that it was in color.
- 1. Garfield, p. 210. ["Its only
advantage over the 1936 Randolph Scott version is that this one's in better
- 2. Maltin, p. 757. ["OK adaptation…"]
- 3. New York Times , review signed "T. M. P." (August 30, 1947), 8: 6. "It all ends in due time, with a screen full of dead Indians and decapitated British colonials. Some fun, eh! Go to it kids and squirm with excitement the way we once use to do on Saturday afternoon. And don't be too harsh on the actors -- they are really nice people, trying hard to make a living."
- 4. Variety, "Miniature Reviews" (July 16, 1947). [Columbia , color (Vitacolor), "Okay, summer fare"]
- 5. ______, "Last of the Redmen," signed "Brog." (July 16, 1947). ["Jon Hall and Michael O'Shea wear the characters ... with an uneasy air, but will get by with the kiddies anyway." "More suited is Buster Crabbe as the treacherous Iroquois Indian Magua. Because of the presence of Crabbe and Hall, there are several swimming and water battle sequences tossed in for action touch." ' Femmes have little to do."]
- 6. Walker, John. ["Tinpot rendition of The Last of the Mohicans."]
1948 "The Return of the Mohicans"
[the 1932 serial condensed into a feature-length film]
1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"
Thirty-nine [30 minute] episodes; syndicated TV series (Fall 1957-Summer 1958), directed by Sam Neufield and Sidney Salkow; producer: Sigmund Neufeld; writers: Andre Boehm, Louis Vittes; made-in-Canada telefilm with John Hart as Nat Cutter [Hawkeye], Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, Michael Ansara as Ogana, Lili Fontaine as Marion, Dave Garner as Tommy Cutter (Hawkeye's brother), and John Vernon.
Synopsis: Story line is about the founding and growth of
America in the 1750"s as seen through the adventures of U. S. Cavalry Scouts Nat Cutter [Hawkeye] and Chingachgook as they help pioneers battle the Huron
- 1. Erickson, p. 29. ["Hawkeye was taken as far as possible from the works of James Fenimore Cooper. John Hart, who'd demonstrated his utter lack of star quality when he briefly replaced Clayton Moore on The Loan Ranger, kept his record intact in the role of the 18th-century frontiersman Hawkeye." "His Indian chum Chingachgook was played by Lon Chaney Jr., and you know you're in trouble with a series in which Lon Chaney Jr. is the best actor." Despite this "Hawkeye was one of TPA's strongest '57 properties, its 26 episodes drawing fans from all viewer age groups."]
- 2. Gianakos, 1975-1980, p. 372-373. [lists the 39 titles and their viewing dates for the first ABC-TV New York telecast of "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"]
- 3. Johnson, R., "Hawkeye," TV Guide, (August 3, 1957), p. 23. ["Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans is a trite, syndicated serial beamed at viewers of an age to snag their mamas into buying a certain kind of bread. It comes on … between Sky King and Wild Bill Hickock and in content is indistinguishable from them. Both (John Hart and Lon Chaney) walk through their cardboard roles with all the posturing skill of old hands at this sort of comic-strip entertainment." still of Lon Chaney]
- 4. Lentz, pp. 1630-1631. [lists titles and dates of production; some additional cast listed for selected programs]
- 5. Vahimagi, Tise, p. 65. [still of John Hart and Lon Chaney, Jr.]
1962 Four TV Movies
International Television Corporation, distributed to TV four TV movies: "Along the Mohawk Trail," "The Red Man and the Renegades," "The Long Rifle and the Tomahawk," and "The Pathfinder and the Mohican" based on the 1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans" television series; John Hart played Hawkeye, Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, and Angela Fusco.
1964 "The Pathfinder and the Mohican"
90 minute, black & white telefeature, directed by Sam Newfield with Jon Hall, Lon Chaney, Jr., Jonathan White, Angela Fusco, and Larry Solway.
Synopsis: Story line has Delaware Indians falsely accused of various crimes against settlers. Hawkeye and Chingachgook attempt to prove the truth.
1965 "Der Letzte Mohikaner"
[The Last of the Mohicans] German-Italian-Spanish independent production; released by International Germania Film; 90 minutes (West Germany); directed by Harald Reinl; camera: Ernst Kalinke; music: Peter Thomas; with Italian Western star Anthony Steffen (Antonio De Teffe) as "Strongheart" (Leatherstocking), Dan Martín as the Last of the Mohicans (Unkas), Carl Lange as Col. Munroe, Karin Dor as Cora, Marie France as Alice Munroe, Joachim Fuchsberger as Maj. Hayward and Ricardo Rodriguez, Stelio Candelli, Kurt Grobkurth, and Angel Ter.
- 1965 "La Valle delle ombre rosse [The Valley in Red Shadow]," (Italian title).
- 1965 "The Last Tomahawk," (American title of "Der Letzte Mohikaner")
Synopsis: "Sauerkraut Western" story based on the Leatherstocking Tales: De Teffe and Martin save Lange and his two daughters: Karin Dor and Marie France]
- 1. Hardy p. 291. "Although officially based on The Last of the Mohicans , as one might expect from Reinl, the director most closely associated with the Winnetou series of Westerns, the film owes much
more to Karl May than James Fenimore Cooper. In common with all the
Winnetou films, the novel is composed mosaic-like with narrative pace, rather than motivation, joining together the action set-pieces." "... the
name change from Leatherstocking is perhaps the clearest indication of just how much Cooper's character is seen through the lens of May's far more intense romanticism." "... Reinl concentrates on the action sequences, the most notable of which is a splendid avalanche."
1965 "Uncas, el fin de una raza"
[Uncas, the End of a Race], Ital Caribe Cinematografica (Spain/Italy), 85 minutes; directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora. Cast included: Jack Taylor as Duncan Heywood, Luis Induni as Hawkeye, Dan Martin as Lucan, Paul Muller as Col. Munro, Sara Lezana, Barbara Loy, José Manuel Martin, Pastor Serrador.
- 1965 "L'Ultimo dei Mohicani," (Italy/Spain/West Germany). Directed by Matteo Cano.
- 1965 "El Ultimo mohicano," 92 minutes (Spanish title). Directed by Matteo Cano.
1969 "Die Lederstrumpferzaählungen"
[The Leatherstocking Tales] Mini TV series, color, language: French; directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit; cast; Hellmut Lange as Natty Bumppo, Pierre Massimi as Chingagook, Alexandru David as Unkas, Sophie Agacinski as Judith Hutter, Otto Ambros as Oberst (Col.)Munro, Robert Benoit as Paul Hover, Jack Brunet as Duncan Heyward, J.P. Compain as Weucha, Marc Cottel as Tamenund, George Demetru as Ismael Bush, Ion Dischiseanu as Mathoree, Christian Duroc as Jasper, G. Florin as Kawano, Roland Ganemet as David Gamut, Gabriel Bason as Dr. Battius, Loumi Lacobesco as Cora, Catherine Jourdan as Ellen Wade, Jackie Lombard as Wah-ta-wah, Sylvie Maas-Lebot as Alice, Victoria Medea as Esther Bush, Charles Moulin as Muir, Mircea Pascu as Abiram Bush, Patrick Peuvion as Harry March, Ali Raffi as Magua, Colea Rautu as Gespaltene Eiche (Split Oak), Helmuth Schneider as Miles Forman, Czach Szabolcs as Pfeilspitze (Arrowpoint), Juliette Villard as Mable, and Thekla Carola Wied as Hetty Hutter.
- 1969 "Bas de Cuir" ["Leather Stocking" also
known as "Légende de Bas de Cuir"], TV series, with Hellmut Lange as Natty Bumppo [Bas de cuir and Oeil de faucon], and Pierre Massimi as Chingagook, Alexandru David as Unkas.
Return to Table of Contents
1969 "Ultimul Mohican"
[The Last of the Mohicans] (Romania), directed
by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu. Cast:
Hellmut Lange, Pierre Massimi, Alexandru David, Sybil Mass, Otto Ambros,
Luminita Labescu, and Jacques Brinet.
1971 "Last of the Mohicans"
BBC-TV, directed by David Maloney, produced by John McRae, written by Harry Green, 8 episodes (45 minutes), filmed in the Scottish Highlands with Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas, and Philip Madoc as Magua, Joanna David as Alice Munroe, Patricia Maynard as Cora Munroe, . [fairly faithful to Fenimore Cooper novel]
- 1. Vahimagi, Tise, p. 197. "A handsome production of J. Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking tales shot by the BBC in the west of Scotland." [aired on BBC: 1,17/1-7/3/1971; still of Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye and John Abinieri as Chingachgok]
1972 "The Last of the Mohicans"
WNET Masterpiece Theater, BBC Television eight-part serial, filmed in the Scottish Highhlands with Alistair Cooke as host. Tim Goodman played Heyward, Philip Madoc as Magua, Patricia Maynard as Cora, Joanna David as Alice, Andrew Crawford as Col. Munro, Noel Coleman as Gen. Webb, Prentis Hancock as Grant, David Leland as David Gamut, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas and Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye.
Synopsis:Story line has Heyward at Fort Edward requesting aid for Munro. Magua leads the girls, Heyward, and another soldier into an ambush. Hawkeye leads the survivors to an island cave. After a fight, the Indians capture the girls and Heyward. Hawkeye has gone for help. Hawkeye and the Mohicans helped by Gamut rescue the group and barely get them to the fort. Hawkeye and the Mohicans are captured, tortured, and saved by Montcalm. The final scene at a waterfall has Uncas jumping down (and missing) Magua who kills him; another Indian stabs Cora; Magua kills him and fights Chingachgook. Magua is thrown down the waterfall. Cora and
Uncas are buried, and Hawkeye proclaims his friendship to Chingachgook.
They depart together.
- 1. Freedman, Richard, "The Last of the
Mohicans," TV Guide (March 25, 1972), pp. 39- 40. [historical background piece to help the viewer enjoy and understand the serial]
- 2. TV Guide (March 26, 1972), "Close Up," p. A-34 (Sunday, Chapter 1), p. 40, Monday afternoon showing). [the adventure opens in 1757 against a backdrop of the French and Indian War. Plots and subplots are laid at Fort William Henry]
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1973 "Hawkeye, The Pathfinder"
20th Century Fox TV and ABC TV, produced by John McRae, directed by David Maloney, dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell, five part serial (55 min. episodes) with Paul Massie as Hawkeye and John Abinieri as Chingachgook. [produced 1-18/11-16/12/1973]
1977 "Last of the Mohicans"
Shick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 100 minutes [when syndicated: 90 minutes], directed by James L. Conway, producer: Robert Stambler, teleplay: Stephen Lord. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook, Andrew Prine as Maj. Heyward, Don Shanks as Uncas, Robert Tessier as Magua, Jane Actman as Alice Morgan, Michele March as Cora, Robert Easton as David Gamut, Whit Bissell as Gen. Webb, with Dehl Berti, John G. Bishop, Beverly Rowland, Rosalyn Mike, Reid Sorenson, and Coleman Lord.
Synopsis: Story line has Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas helping Maj. Heyward escort Cora and Alice to their father. Magua and his Huron warriors are the determents. The group is captured and saved. There are long fight scenes and a chase on the lake. At Tamenund's village Cora is given to Magua who takes her to a high promontory. The rescuers arrive. Chingachgook kills Magua in hand-to-hand combat after Uncas, sacrificing himself to save Cora, is shot by Magua. There are no scenes of the surrender at the fort nor of the massacre; Cora is permitted to live, but David Gamut is killed.
- 1. Marrill, p. 238. [A "Classics Illustrated" version of the adventure tale. The two-hour production was subsequently cut to 90 minutes.]
- 2. Movies on TV (1986). ["Do you need another inferior Hawkeye and his Indian Friends?"]
- 3. Sarf, Wayne Michael. God Bless You, Buffalo Bill A Layman's Guide to History and the Western Film. East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Presses and Cornwall Books, 1983, p. 192. [Cooper's hero Natty Bumppo always refused to take scalps on the ground that God had intended the custom for "another race" and not whites like himself. In an un-Cooperian fashion, Steve Forrest as Hawkeye tells Maj. Heywood that scalping started in Europe. "Bone up on your history, Major."]
- 4. TV Movies (1986). ["Sturdy ... with Forrest fine as the stalwart Hawkeye. Above average."]
- 5. Parish & Pitts, p. 185.
[still of Steve Forrest and Don Shanks, p. 186]
1977 "The Last of the Mohicans"
Full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, 1988, 1976; 1 videocassette (49 min.), sound/color, ½ inch format; adaptation: Lewis Draper; animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington; camera: Jan Cregan; voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, and Frank Welker.
Synopsis: Story line has Magua leading the girls and Heyward. They meet Hawkeye, Uncas and Chingachgook on the trail. Uncas chases Magua away. They leave the horses and enter canoes. Stopping at an island for the night, they stay in a cave. Chingachgook gives Alice his necklace. Hawkeye and Uncas swim for help. Alice has a little dog (Pip) which yips, and they are captured. Hawkeye and Uncas to the rescue. Chingachgook and Magua plunge over a cliff. Arriving at the fort they find it burned and empty. That night Uncas and the two girls are captured. Uncas and Alice are saved from the stake by the necklace Alice is wearing. Hawkeye, Heyward, and Cora run from Magua and his Indians, but Uncas and the Delawares put the Indians to route. At Fort Ticonderoga, Munro greets his daughters, Hawkeye and Uncas. Hawkeye returns to the woods. Uncas, the last of the Mohicans, leaves to find other Mohicans and build a tribe. Alice
and Pip run after him, and they all ride off together.
1987 "The Last of the Mohicans"
Videorecording, Burbank Films Australia, Northbrook, IL: Film Ideas, 1987, 1 videocassette (50 minutes) sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [animated; music: Simon Walker; screenplay: Leonard Lee]
Synopsis: Story line has Chingachgook and Uncas surrounded by Hurons. His father is killed, but Uncas is saved by Hawkeye. Magua leads Heyward and the girls; they rest for the night; Hawkeye catches Heyward off guard; tell the truth about Magua. Next day they set off; Hawkeye scouting ahead; party is captured again; Hawkeye saves party. Raft takes them to cave; Hawkeye and Uncas go for help; party is captured; Uncas asks Tamenund for help; they capture Magua and prisoners; Magua slips away and they get to the fort. Capt. Washington wants to surrender and fight another day and Munro agrees. The women leave and are captured. Uncas and Hawkeye are captured; all are to be burned at the stake. Tamenund arrives; Magua and Uncas fight high on a cliff; Magua fall to his death. Montcalm's troops save them. Tamenund admonishes Uncas and Hawkeye to work for peace between peoples.
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20th Century Fox, Michael Mann, Director, Rated R. Screenplay by M. Mann and Christopher Crowe also based on 1936 United Artists' version by Philip Dunne. Cast: Daniel Day-Lewis played Hawkeye (Nathaniel Poe), Madeleine Stowe as Cora Munro, Jodhi May as Alice Munro, Eric Schweig as Uncas, Steven Waddington as Maj. Heyward, Russell Means as Chingachgook, Cherokee actor Wes Studi as Magua, Maurice Roëves as Col. Munro, Patrice Chereau as Gen. Montcalm, Terry Kiney as John Cameron, Justin M. Rice as James Cameron, Tracey Ellis as Alexandra Cameron, Edward Blatchford as Jack Winthrop, American Indian Movement co-founder Dennis Banks in a small part as Ongewasgone, Pete Postlethwaite as Capt. Beams, Colm Meaney as Maj. Ambrose, Mac Andrews as Gen. Webb, Malcom Storry as Phelps, David Schofield as Sgt. Maj., Eric Sandgren as Coureuu de Bois, Mike Phillips as Sachem, Mark Baker as Colonial Man, Dylan Baker as Bougainville, Tim Hopper as Ian, Gregory Zaragoza as Abenaki Chief, Scott Means as Abenaki Warrior, William Bozic, Jr. As French Artillery officer, Patrick Fitzgerald as Webb's Adjutant, Mark Joy as Henri, Steve Keator as Colonial Representative, Don Tilley as 1st Colonial, Thomas Cummings as 2nd Colonial, David Farrow as Guard, Ethan Fugate as French Sappeur, F. Curtis Gaston as 1st Soldier, Eric A. Hurley as 2nd Soldier, Jared Harris as British Lt., Michael McConnel as Sentry, Thomas McGowan as the Rich Merchant, Alice Papineau as Huron Woman, Mark Maracle as Sharitarish, Clark Heathcliffe as Regimental Sgt. Maj., Sebastian Roche as Martin, Joe Finnegan as 2nd Redcoat, and Sheila Barhill as the Humming Woman.
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Synopsis: Story line has Cora and Alice escorted by Duncan Heyward to the Fort under siege by the French. An ambush leaves the trio unprotected and Hawkeye, his adopted father and brother lead them to the Fort. Hawkeye and Maj. Heyward love Cora, and Uncas loves Alice. After the fall of the Fort and the massacre comes the chase and capture. At the Indian encampment, Heyward offers his life for the girls [preempting Hawkeye's offer], and Magua leaves with Alice. Hawkeye shoots the screaming Heyward as he is being burned to death. There is an action packed finale on a majestic ridge where Alice commits suicide rather than be with Magua; Uncas tries to avenge her death, but is killed by Magua; and Chingachgook revenges his son by killing Magua.
James Fenimore Cooper did not predict that his book would become a classic, but time has proven its endurance. Michael Mann's expressed great confidence in his film when he commented, "It's going to be a classic." History will determine the enduring appellation. To date reviews of the film have not yet bestowed classic status upon the forty million dollar plus movie version.
The largest movie set ever built east of the Mississippi was the six million dollar reconstruction of Fort William Henry. On a bluff overlooking Lake James, between Marion and Morganton North Carolina, the 160,000 square foot fort was a virtual museum of frontier America. Medicine jars of the period, blackened cooking pots, and stacked muskets attested to the attention paid to historical accuracy. Most of the props: handmade uniforms and shoes, birchbark canoes, and woven baskets were made by local craftspeople.
Mr. Mann felt that Linville Gorge gave him the perfect backdrop for shooting scenes in the wilderness of 18th century New York. The rugged country challenged the construction crews. Moving heavy equipment and hundreds of cast members in the mountains only to be rained out or to have the director change his mind proved to be frustrating and costly. The company closed out its 6 month filming in the mountains six weeks behind schedule due to heavy rains throughout the summer of 1991. Cost over runs of $20,000 an hour during shooting were not uncommon. By October the budget had exceeded forty million dollars. When the film was completed, the production company was required by law to restore the area.
Mann fired his first cinematographer and the costume designer. The hair stylist quit. The film was plagued by nearly a dozen wildcat work stoppages: initially by American Indians (Russell Means helped negotiate improved working conditions and exempts Mann from any blame for the problems) and then by local extras. The 2000 extras protested poor pay, and wanted better working and living conditions. Director Mann was quoted as saying that laying "dead" on the damp and rocky ground for hours without breaks for multiple retakes was normal on location shooting. Extras outside of Hollywood "don't know what to expect." North Carolina's right-to-work law, permits non-union employees to work for a company that has a union contract. The result of making the film in NC rather that in NY or CA saved the production company a small fortune. Rather than paying union wages and benefits, local workers had to individually negotiate with the company. The company kept individual contracts secret, and no one knew [unless employees shared with each other] what anyone else was earning. Pay ranged from $4 to $15 a hour. Housing, quality of meals, and transportation also varied with negotiation.
American, French, and Iroquois-Delaware were used for dialogue in the
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- 1. Abramowitz, Rachel & John H. Premiere, Vol. 5, 10 (June 1992), p. 100. [authors predict this film will be top draw; still of Daniel Day-Lewis running, p.97]
- 2. _______________et al. Ibid, Vol. 6, 2 (October 1992), p. 102. [May be too sophisticated and too violent for the Robin Hood audience. Miami Vice in buckskin.]
- 3. Alleva, Richard. "Smoke on the Horizon `Mohicans' & `Dracula,'" Commonweal, Vol. 119, 22 (December 18, 1992), pp. 16-17. ["There is one pop song used on the soundtrack ... and it's momentarily disastrous." "... immediate and elegiac, gorgeous to look at but not embalmed by its own beautiful photography, full of chases, hand-to-hand combat and "hair-breath scapes in the imminent deadly breach," yet not lacking in contemplative passages..." Mann has made an adventure film that haunts as well as excites."]
- 4. Ansen, David. Newsweek, "Mann in the Wilderness," Vol. 120, 13 (September 28, 1992), pp. 48-49. ["His gorgeous Last of the Mohicans gets off to a bumpy start, gathers feeling and momentum and comes roaring into the home-stretch at full gallop." Mann did his homework: he "... can expound at length on the colors and patterns of each tribe's war paints." Mann and Day-Lewis spent a month in the forests "... learning the skills and tools needed to survive in the 18th-century wilderness." stills of Day-Lewis in action; Stowe as Cora; Mann with Waddington and Hawkeye]
- 5. The Arizona Republic, "Soda Water and Sci-FI, Currier & Ives and Nudist Camps" (November 1, 1992), p. E 1. ["1823 - John Wayne gets his first role, when James Fenimore Cooper publishes Pioneers. Wayne, Gary Cooper, and even Clint Eastwood would not have been possible without Cooper's Leatherstocking tales, including The Last of the Mohicans."]
- 6. Arnold, Gary. "Mann and Myth," Washington (D.C.)Times (September 20, 1992). [Mann's LOM is discussed; the 1936 version was "probably one of the first films I ever saw," Mr. Mann says. "It made an impression on me. I think it must have been similar to the way the original historical events had left an impression on Cooper, reconstructing them 75 years later." For Cooper fans the most noticeable change may be the hero's name: Nathaniel Poe. Madeleine Stowe admits, "There were days when you felt so lost amid 700 or 800 extras, with seven cameras planted all over the place to capture a vast scene. Michael will not roll the cameras until he feels everything is totally right. He's far and away the most exacting director I've ever worked with..."]
- 7. ___________. "Indian Actors Cheering for the Bad Guy," Washington Times (September 28, 1992). ["...Wes Studi and Russell Means ...evidently prefer "Indian" (to Native American) and use the term without apology." "It's more than a little ironic that what both find so positive is the dynamic nastiness of Mr. Studi's Magua ... The 'bad' Indian has good reasons to be bad. "For the first time in cinematic history the so-called 'bad' Indian has character development and is portrayed as intellectually superior to his non-Indian counterpart, a French general."]
- 8. Barker and Sabin, pp. 108-120. [a running account of the scenes (pp. 109-113); disparate reviews; modes of filming; images in mythmaking; different forms of the myth the Mohicans films have proposed]
- 9. Berger, Arion. "Hawkeye and Hot Lips Michael Mann's Romance with History," La Weekly (October 2-October 8, 1992), pp. 33. ["As an amoral and anti-political period piece, deeply invested in the futility of war, the movie's brute splendor is all the more moving because it's so extravagantly doomed." "... Mohicans captures its historical moment -- the dissolution of Indian tribes that played by the settlers' rules and lost, and the stirrings of Revolutionary fervor and female emancipation." "Day-Lewis moves and stands and speaks like a man who can reload and fire a flintlock at full run (as Mann claims he can);" "Mann has created a rigorously beautiful film that rewrites our vision of history." still of Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye]
- 10. Bernard, Jami. New York Post (September 25, 1992), p. 23. ["The new Michael Mann version makes clear what fusty old Cooper couldn't -- that "Mohicans" is a ripe, heady romance." "Even if you've read the book, you wont know what in tarnation they're talking about... " "Premiere magazine writer Cyndi Stivers noted during the press screening, Cora's lip liner stayed perfect even through the massacre scene." "The Last of the Mohicans" stirs the blood with its scenes of wild natural beauty, youthful idealism and fated passions. But wait -- here comes the swelling score again, the theme music for the Daniel Day-Lewis, bare-chested 100-yard dash!"]
- 11. Blake, Richard A. "Hair Apparent," America, Vol. 167, 16 (November 21, 1992), pp. 407-408. ["It is a festival of style and spectacle that entertains, even hypnotizes, while the narrative offers little more than an excuse for some extraordinary and extremely violent action sequences." "The music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman offers the same intensity (as the rock beat of "Miami Vice"), which at times detracts from the images on the screen." "...the inconsistent switching from Gielgud English to Lauder Scottish to Dolly Parton American all within a single scene, can be
disconcerting." "The last combat...is raised to mythic scale... (it)
becomes a war of...good and evil, civilization and wilderness, (a) battle for supremacy in this dangerous and wonderful world." "... a film that
respects the ambiguities of American's myths and history, is a true
- 12. Bonham, Kevin. "Wanted: Indian Actors," Grand Forks (N.D.) Herald (February 16, 1991). ["Native Americans at Fort Totten Indian Reservation will try out for roles next week in a remake of the movie, "The Last of the Mohicans." The actors "are suppost to be at least 6 feet tall,with good physiques and in good physical condition. Those who win parts will have to take a three-week survival training course... The actors have to be willing to cut their hair for the filming, possibly in the Mohawk style..." "This might be their big chance."]
- 13. Brady, James, "Instep with Madeleine Stowe," Parade Magazine, (September 6, 1992), p. 30. [still of M. Stowe; as the daughter of a British officer she "falls in love with Hawkeye, though in the book she falls for Uncas, the noble Indian."]
- 14. Britton, Bonnie. "Frontier Romance is at the Heart of Beautiful, Brutal 'Mohicans'," Indianapolis (IN) Star (September 25, 1992). [The Last of the Mohicans is mostly entertaining, intense, fast-paced, crisply filmed by cinematographer Dante Spinotti and convincing in its attention to costume and set detail, though short on plot and eager to fall back on Hollywood convention." "Daniel Day-Lewis is ... Tarzan in buckskins..." Most startling, and refreshing, is the portrayal of the Indians.]
- 15. Cartright, Bob. "The Last of the Mohicans," Wichita (KS) Eagle (September 25, 1992). ["Russell Means is such an activist ... if he went along with this movie then they did it right." Article quotes high school students opinions and the Director of the Indian Center]
- 16. Cohen, Lawrence, 'Mohican' pow 'Ducks' fine 'Hero' wimpy," Variety (October 12, 1992), p. 12. ["The Last of the Mohicans stood off new competition handily to repeat by a wide margin as top film in North America for the second week in a row. The Daniel Day Lewis starrer took $12.8 million at 1800 sites…"]
- 17. Comer, Brooke. "Last of the Mohicans: Interpreting Cooper's Classic," American Cinematographer, Vol. 73, 12 (December 1, 1992), pp. 30-34. [director of photography Dante Spinotti describes working with Michael Mann and coordinating and shooting some of the challenging scenes; four stills]
- 18. Denby, David. "Indian Bummer," New York, Vol. 25, 38 (September 28, 1992), pp. 59-60. [still: Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; "Half of the time, we don't know what is going on or why any of it matters." ["We may be witnessing the birth of a new genre: the opaquely violent historical action film." "The Last of the Mohicans is bloody and baffling ... bogged down in narrative swamps ... surely, Michael Mann ....knows how to tell a story -- that's what make me think the incoherence is possibly intentional." "Mann and co-writer Christopher Crowe have imagined his speech well, dropping Cooper's notorious fustian dialogue and devising for Hawkeye a simple and direct American language..." "The movie is a piece of design ... and makes little dramatic sense. Mann sees everything visually -- as an effect. He loads these effect one atop the other as the movie grandly - but not, I would guess, commercially -- slips through his
- 19. Dubner, S. J. New York, Vol. 25, 36 (September 14, 1992), p. 52. [Hollywood, it seems, has rediscovered the great American novel.]
- 20. Ebert, Roger. "`Mohicans' Captures Frontier Adventure," Chicago (IL) Sun Times (September 25, 1992). [Mann's film is quite an improvement on Cooper's all but unreadable book, and a worthy successor to the Randolph Scott version.]
- 21. Engel, Joel. "A Fort, a War and the Last Thousand or So Mohicans," The New York Times, Vol. 142, 49 (September 20, 1992), p. H9, 12(NY & L), Sec. 2, Col. 1, 32 column inches. [two stills: Fort William Henry and Michael Mann on the set; "Working from period drawings and plans of the wooden fort that was erected by the British in 1775 ... the film
makers took nearly three months to build a 300 by 400 foot replica..."
"The film makers also created the colonial village of Albany, a 20 acre
farmstead and a Huron village..." Philip Haythornthwaite, an expert on
British military history, was called in to advise on British uniforms and
weapons. David Webster, a wilderness survival trainer, gave the actors
lessons in 18th century military techniques." "The look of the various
Indian tribes was meticulously researched, down to haircuts and body
paint.. But coming up with accurate Indian dialogue proved more
difficult." The Mohawks spoke Iroquois. The Hurons spoke Wyandot a
now-defunct language. The Mohican language has also died out. Actors
playing Mohicans (including Daniel Day-Lewis) spoke Munsee Delaware, the closest remaining dialect. In the Huron village, many extras spoke Onondaga.
Wes Studi (Magua) spoke mostly Mohawk, "although he occasionally reverted to his native Cherokee." "Daniel Day-Lewis is one of four guys in America who can reload a flintlock rifle at a full run..." "Mr. Mann says he intended `The Last of the Mohicans' to be more faithful to history than to Cooper's
novel" "There were probably 1,200 Mohicans alive in 1757." "If you
were living on the frontier in 1757, the Mohawks were your rich neighbors.
They were not some group of manservants." "The film errs in showing the
retreating soldiers leaving with their ammunition, which the French in fact
confiscated." Although in the book and in the film it looks like the whole
British army was massacred, only 185 people died; the rest were taken
- 22. Fuller, Graham. "Shots in the Dark," Interview, 22, 10 (October 1992), p. 88. [still of Wes Studi as Magua; "...has reworked Cooper's plot so that the famous interlude in the caves at Glens Falls follows, rather than precedes, the Huron atrocities at the fort, while hardening the conflict between Hawkeye ... and the reactionary redcoat Major Heyward as they vie for the affections of Cora." "Maybe it is a subtlety, but it's shot from inside Mohican culture." "That worldview goes some way toward making the "noble savages" of Cooper book nobler -- or at least more realistic -- than any film has made them seem before."]
- 23. ____________. Interview, 22,12 (December 1992), p. 53. [rated LOM in top 10 films of the year]
- 24. Gerosa, Melina. "Into the Woods," Entertainment Weekly, 133 (August 28, 1992), p. 16. [describes production details]
- 25. Gleiberman, Owen. "Native Son," Ibid, 137 (September 25, 1992), pp. 38, 39, 42. ["Michael Mann's fierce and beautiful adaptation …has scenes of brutal physical power that hold you in thrall." "The center of the movie, however, feels a little unoccupied." "Hawkeye barely seems in the movie … his Hawkeye is a kind of long-haired Zen Boy Scout." "Mann … is a master of violence and lyrical anxiety. There's a fight on the edge of a cliff that attains a spooky, almost hallucinatory quality… And Mann has created a great villain in Magua," "Hawkeye may be the hero … but by the end of the movie it's Magua's malevolent passion that
burns brightest." Still of Daniel Day-Lewis and his adoptive family as
they face their foes.]
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- 26. _______________. Ibid, (October 16, 1992), p. 56. [most powerful and enthralling sound tracks in years. The music fuses the action, lending the entire sequence the heightened clarity of a dream.]
- 27. Gliatto, Tom. "His barefoot: in `Last of the Mohicans' Daniel Day-Lewis Shows the world he's got Sex Appeal, too." People Weekly, 38, 9 (November 9, 1992), p. 69-71. ["Day-Lewis doesn't simply disappear into these roles; he obsessively sinks himself into them." stills: Lewis "immensely concentrated -- fearless. He will do and try anything;" age 11 with his parents; Hawkeye; palsied artist Christy Brown; A "Hawkeye" at his LA. premiere]
- 28. Hackett, Larry (New York Daily News). "Less than Saints, More than Savages," Kansas City Star ( October 23, 1992), pp. H-4 & H-10. [photo of Russell Means as Chingachgook; "'Mohicans' co-star Russell Means is proud of its accurate depiction of Native Americans."]
- 29. Hajari, Nisid, Entertainment Weekly, 137 (September 25, 1992), p. 39. [Chief Gertinemong, life time chief of the Mohegans and a direct descendent of Uncas, indicates that 907 Mohegans survive today – approximately 300 of them around Mohegan. CT. Uncas was really the first
of the Mohegans as he lead a rebellion against the Pequot leader Sassacus in the early 17th century. There were no Mohegan's chosen for the film.
Mohegan Indians comment on film's accuracy]
- 30. Harkness, John. "White Noise," Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November 1992), p. 15. [In Mann's hands, The Last of the Mohicans is less a blueprint for the rejection of white civilization than an attempt to give us in the 90's a new birth of a white culture that respects the individuality of other cultures, at least to the point where we can regret their destruction.]
- 31. Hettrick, Scott. "Letterbox format suits 'Mohicans' epic just fine," The Kansas City Star (March 12, 1993), p. G-12. [Fox videorecording ($94.98) has black bands at top and bottom of TV screen; "...a wilderness episode of 'Miami Vice.'" "The hard-to-swallow character modernization aside, this is a beautifully filmed action adventure that is a lot of fun."]
- 32. Hoberman, J. "Born To Be Wild," Village Voice, Vol. 37, 39 (September 29, 1992), p. 55. ["...Mann's lavish new adaptation is a work of blithe disregard." "The Last of the Mohicans is as much romantic swashbuckler as proto-western." "The set pieces are often masterful." "Day-Lewis is too sexy, too social." ]
- 33. Hooper, Joseph. "Mann & Mohican," Esquire, Vol. 118, 1 (July 1992), p. 19. [still of Mann, Means, and Banks; Means quoted discussing acting]
- 34. Horn, John. "Last of Mohicans is Top Film Again," Chicago Tribune (October 9, 1992), p. L. ["For the second week in a row, ‘The Last of the Mohicans' was the nation's favorite film, earning $9.7 million at the box office."]
- 35. Howe, Desson, "Hair-Praising Adventure," Washington Post (September 25, 1992). p. N43. ["This is the MTV version of gothic romance…Yet, by its own glossy ‘Miami Vice' rules, the movie is stirring." still of Daniel-Day Lewis as Hawkeye]
- 36. Howell, J. Elle, Vol. 8, 2 (October 1992), p. 82. [Jodhi May is featured briefly]
- 37. Hunter, Stephen. "'Mohicans' is Lush Meditation on Killing," Baltimore (MD) Sun (September 25, 1992). [Beautiful and damned, the movie is a long meditation on killing. (Hawkeye) is thin and quick, almost unbearably graceful, a laconic instant American icon. He's like a calendar boy from the collective unconscious of the National Rifle Association. The real battle ... (is) between the filmmaking stylistics of Michael Mann and the hopelessly shabby formulaic melodramatics of the material. His (Mann) is a white man's view of the events and the Native Americans stay in the background. The only native American to crack to life is the villainous Magua, brilliantly played by Wes Studi.]
- 38. Jahiel, Edwin, "The Last of the Mohicans," http://www.prairienet.org/%7Eejahiel /lastmohi.htm ["I am grateful to the movie for bringing back my childhood… Daniel Day Lewis "could be
called Hunkas to match Uncas. You can't imagine how accurate the
muskets are. Everyone is a dead shot. Great action and suspense
scenes. Courage all over. Sacrifices too. Lotsa guts, some spilled. This is Hollywood at its best – and its worst. Lavish, sumptuous, glorious, breathtaking sights. Most confusing. Muddled narrative. Unclarities. Lack of motivations. No characters developed. By all means go and admire Mother Nature in 1757."]
- 39. Johnson, Brian D. "Hawkeye Returns," Maclean's, 105, 40 (October 5, 1992), p. 63. [still of Daniel Day-Lewis; "Despite breathtaking scenery, fast-paced action, and painstaking period detail, the drama seems hollow at the core." "The Battle scenes are thrilling..."]
- 40. Johnson, Malcom." Where Barry Lyndon
Meets Randolph Scott on the Frontier," Hartford (CT) Courant (September 25,
1992). [Still, it violates literary license to rechristen Natty Bumppo with the more mellifluous and less silly moniker of Nathaniel Poe. The Indians are all pretty much the same as in Cooper. Chingachgook, filled with subdued
power ... comes off fatherly and noble. Uncas ... exudes an almost mythic
air. Magua ... remains the embodiment of evil, so naturally that the base
miscreant steals the film. Rated R, this film contains especially brutal
hand-to-hand combat and a high body count.]
- 41. Jones, Bill. "'Last of the Mohicans' Triumphs in Detail, Authenticity," The Phoenix Gazette (September 25, 1992), p. 28. ["Mann shot `Mohicans' in North Carolina were he found one of America's last remaining old-growth forests. He built log cabins, planted 18th-century crops and constructed a 1- 20 scale model of Fort William Henry... When the picture wrapped, the sets were razed and the area was reseeded."]
- 42. Kempley, Rita, "'Mohicans': Beat the Drums," Washington Post (September 25, 1992), p. 131. ["Part modern romance, part historical re-creation, the story no longer has much to do with Cooper's original." photo of Daniel-Day Lewis]
- 43. King, Dennis. "A Classic Rendition Co-Stats Delight in Magic of Making 'Mohicans'," Tulsa (OK) World (September 25, 1992). ["... for months before shooting began ... he (Day-Lewis) walked around in buckskins and carried a hefty Killdeer rifle with him everywhere he went. And he endured weeks of wilderness training with Army survival specialists in Alabama, learning to hunt, skin game and become adept at using 18th-century weaponry, from knives to tomahawks to muzzle-loaders." "For her part, Stowe said the making of 'Mohicans' was a life-altering, and career-altering experience."]
- 44. Kronke, David. "'The Mohicans' brings adventure, romance, to new lows," (Los Angeles, CA) Daily News (September 25, 1992). ["... stylized violence, flashy camera work, music aplenty, endlessly distracting slow-motion sequences and performers who posture more often than act, and the result could be called "Mohican Vice." "This story is about romance, and should you forget that for even one second, the most overwrought musical score since "Batman Returns" is always on hand to remind you." (Day-Lewis) "reveals more of his chest than his character's psyche..." "Together, though, Stowe and Day-Lewis are a little short on chemistry." "Ultimately, "The last of the Mohicans" is an intriguing but overblown piece of work ... a connect-the-dots epic..."]
- 45. "Last of the Mohicans," web site, http://www.efni.com/kristy.html
- 46. "Last of the Mohicans," web site, http://www.ozcraft.com/scifidu/mohicans.html [many frames from the
movie which can be seen full sized by clicking on them; theme music]
- 47. Lombardi, J. "What a Piece of Work is Mann," Gentlemen's Quarterly, 62 (June, 1992), pp. 172-179.
- 48. McGarrigle, Dale. "Penobscots Play `Last of Mohicans'," Kennebec Journal [Augusta, ME] (October 14, 1992). ["The filmmakers interviewed all the tribes along the East Coast... They wanted tall, skinny Indians, with long hair. Little did we know that they were going to have our heads shaved... the extras went through a couple of weeks of specialized training ...how to use period weaponry such as muskets, tomahawks, knives and war clubs, developing night vision, and being taught how to walk, run and hide in the forest. The local residents treated all the cast like celebrities... They waited on you hand and foot ... but the 16 to 18 hour days of filming were difficult ...It would be cold in the mornings, and we're out there half naked, We'd do the same scene over and over, day after day... Maybe 5 percent of what was shot made it into the movie. The stars treated us like people and would talk to us if they weren't busy..."]
- 49. Mars-Jones, Adam, Independent. [Michael Mann has been aiming all along at two different targets, trying to turn an adventure story into a responsible account of Native American life, while also making it lovey-dovey enough for the market place."]
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- 50. Magiera, Marcy. "Studios Hope for Good Harvest with Fall Films," Advertising Age, 63, 41 (October 5, 1992), p. 20. [opening of LOM in early fall (traditionally the slowest moviegoing time) instead of waiting for post-Thanksgiving period]
- 51. Maltin, p. 757. ["Rousing, kinetic update of the James Fenimore Cooper classic, replete with 1990's sensibilities, potent depiction of violence, and a charismatic central performance by Day-Lewis…"]
- 52. Mann, Michael Kenneth, "Last of the Mohicans," screenplay, 2nd draft, July 31, 1990, includes revised leaves dated November 29, 1990 and June 11, 1991, adapted by Michael Mann and Christopher Crowe, based on the novel by James Fenimore Cooper and the 1936 screenplay by Philip Dunne, 117 leaves. [The film won an Oscar at the 65th annual Academy Award Ceremony for "Best Sound," March 29, 1992]
- 53. Maslin, Janet. "Day-Lewis as Hawkeye in a Cooper Classic," The New York Times, Vol. 142, 49 (September 25, 1992), p. B-2 (NY); p. C-3 (London), 23 column inches. ["The question of the hour, therefore, is why this most stupefying of American classics has now been brought back to the screen." "Drawing upon the novel with merciful selectivity ... Michael Mann has directed a sultrier and more pointedly responsible version ... The film makers may have done a better job of making their own tomahawks and
rebuilding Fort William Henry than breathing sense into their material, but the results are still riveting." "Teamed with Mr. Day-Lewis is a romantic
subplot that would have made Cooper blush..." "The Last of the Mohicans"
is often choppy when it aspires to real sweep, with only a swelling score to
supply what should been achieved through editing and staging." "The film
seems to be meant to be watched .. for its background ..." "It can be
watched for its enlightened and uncommonly interesting treatment of the story's Indian characters...;" still of Madeleine Stowe and Daniel
- 54. ___________, "Hunks Help Sell History," The New York Times, 142 (October 18, 1992), p. H13 (NY) ; p. H113 (London), 13 column inches. [criticizes Hawkeye's visiting friends in cabin; "Mr. Day-Lewis brings serious chemistry to a role that seemingly had no romantic potential at all."
- 55. Mathews, Jack, Newsday (September 25, 1992), Part II, p. 60. ["The (1936) script corrected Cooper's commercial oversight of not giving Hawkeye a love interest ... and Mann and his co-writer ... have taken the extra step of turning that relationship into the story's driving force." "Hawkeye strikes a dashing figure , cutting through the woods with the moves and grace of a gridiron tailback." "The scene where Hawkeye and Cora slip into the dark to release their passion is a modern film anomaly; fully clothed, they manage to burn a hole in the screen merely through the passion of their embrace, their kissing, What a concept!" "As glorious as its images are and as heated as its romance is, the story of Mann's version of "Mohicans" is as thin as an episode of his "Miami Vice." Uncas and Chingachgook ... barely register in the telling ... we get very little cultural context on the nobility of their vanishing tribe."]
- 56. Means, Russell. Entertainment Weekly, 141 (October 23, 1992), p. 34. [describes his experiences and the historical accuracy of the film, and Hollywood's portrayal of Indians]
- 57. "Mohican Notes," A HREF="http://ac.acusd.edu/history/filmnotes/mohicansnotes.html
- 58. Moore, Roger. "Maker of `Mohicans' Took Pains to get Everything Right," Winston-Salem (NC) Journal (September 20, 1992). ["Mann was the person who picked Biltmore Forest, Burke County and Lake James... It was at times a troubled production... Russell Means ... led the Indian extras on a sit-down strike to get better living quarters. Crew members took to wearing "It Doesn't Get Any Worse Than This" T-shirts... audiences are very, very intelligent ... The French had 30 different American Indian groups fighting with them. You had to show them as distinct tribes, different tattooing, different war paint... Michael Mann did his homework here, Means said, and the reason I was involved ... is because he has captured a moment in time when whites and Indians were on equal terms... you couldn't reach the site (for the final scene) by helicopter. So we hiked 22 miles up rocks, pulling on ropes to get there. No bathrooms... it was freezing and wind was whipping us in the face (said Miss Stowe) And it was one of the happiest days of my life."]
- 59. Moore, Shirley Hunter. "'Mohicans' Majesty Lures Moviegoers to Mountains," Charlotte (NC) Observer (October 26, 1992). [NC Division of Travel: "We get about eight calls a day." Burke County Chamber of Commerce have answered about 75 calls about Lake James... the $6 million set (fort) ... was torn down. That hasn't deterred visitors... Officials at Chimney Rock Park have received so many phone calls, they've printed a guide explaining where park locations appear in the movie."]
- 60. "Movie Tunes,"
- 61. Movshovitz, Howie. "`Mohicans'
Marred by Flash Over Substance," Denver (CO) Post (September 25, 1992).
["Guys run through the woods, paddle along in canoes, throw stuff at each other, grunt a lot and make plenty of hoopla. Just why they do these things
remains unclear... James Fenimore Cooper's novel, a tome of clogged writing
style and pervasive racism that deserves whatever humiliation the movies heap upon it... The principle that holds Cooper's book together is the logic of racism... It is a vile logic, but it works as narrative glue. The new film ... abandons all the overt racism, but doesn't replace it with anything so nothing holds it together...It's "Miami Vice" gone north to live in the
- 62. Muldoon, Paul. "Big Hair," Times Literary Supplement, Number 4675, 17 (November 6, 1992), p. 17. [The literary offense that can not be attributed to Cooper is a lack of narrative drive which has attracted movie makers since 1920. Daniel Day-Lewis launches himself at the role followed by an amazing shock of hair. Russell Means brings dignity and response to the role of Chingachgook while Eric Schweig gives us an Uncas fetching enough to stir a longing in the heart of Alice Munro a part which demands, and gets, scarcely anything from Jodhi May. When Magua, played with a definitive, grim grandeur by Wes Studi, is in the neighborhood the body count goes up. "I admire Mann's skill in directing ... large-scale mayhem -- the list of stuntmen is as long as the Hudson."]
- 63. Nesselson, Lisa. "Last of the Mohicans," Variety, Vol. 348, 6 (August 31, 1992), p. 60. [still of Daniel Day Lewis as Hawkeye; "Film shouldn't have much trouble finding its audience, although viewers familiar with the Seven Years War will be better prepared to keep assorted alliances straight."]
- 64. Newsweek, "Movies" (September 14, 1992), p. 66. ["Mann is a master of action;" still of Daniel Day-Lewis]
- 65. Novak, Ralph. "Picks & Pans," People Weekly, 38, 14 (October 5, 1992), pp. 21-23. [still of Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; "Think of this epic ... as Mohawk Valley Vice." "...lots of splash and smoke and ultraloud sound, but slights Cooper's two romantic subplots." "Day-Lewis is a poor Hawkeye, with an accent suggesting he learned his woodsmanship in Hyde Park and the look of a guy whose only experience in New York was posing on Madison Avenue." "Day-Lewis is also implicitly dueling with Randolph Scott, whose Virginia Drawl and lanky athleticism made a definitive Hawkeye in George Seitz's 1936 version..." "Unimpressive, too, is Studi as the Huron Magua..." Mann "seems to have little understanding of the era, though, showing Day-Lewis running along firing a musket with each hand..."]
- 66. "On the Trail of the Last of the Mohicans . . . A Guide Booklet to the Film's Locations." http://www.mohicanpress.com [many pictures and links; entire script]
- 67. Parade Magazine, "Return of The Last of the Mohicans" (March 1, 1992), p. 8. [photos of Daniel Day-Lewis charging and of Madeline Stowe; "More than 600 Native Americans appear in the film."]
- 68. Pawelczak, Andy, "The Last of the Mohicans," Films in Review, 43, 11/12 (November/December 1992), p. 403. [Hawkeye "at times evokes a hippie rock star of the ecological persuasion..." "a kind of grown up wild child, a sexy wood sprite running untrammeled through the arcadian forest." "The relationship between Chingachgook and Hawkeye, which is so important to the novel, is barely sketched in," Magua "gets several big scenes and is played powerfully and convincingly by Wes Studi," "Ultimately, though, the other characters, and even the plot aren't very important, and some of Cooper's most significant themes ... aren't even alluded to." "Mann has created an icon for the nineties when many people, both conservative and liberal, long for a larger, free life."]
- 69. Rafferty Terrence. "Brave Acts,"
The New Yorker, Vol. 68, 33 (October 5, 1992), pp. 160-161. ["He's
(Hawkeye) a cultured white man's dream of virile primitivism, combining the
survival skill, the unself-consciousness, and the at-one-with nature
spirituality of the noble savage with the essential qualities of European
manliness -- chivalry, honor, and fair play." "Dances with Wolves" tried
to manufacture a similarly omni-virtuous male hero, but "The Last of the
Mohicans" does the job a lot more persuasively..." "And in every shot we
see a really terrific head of hair, which is one of the chief improvements of this movie over the 1936 version: Randolph Scott had to wear an unflattering coonskin cap." "...awfully, solemnly silly, but it's enjoyable and even rather stirring."]
- 70. Romney, Jonathan. "Right Road, Wrong Track," New Statesman and Society, V, 227 (November 6, 1992), pp. 41-42. [Mann "reveals himself as a hack with a National Geographic complex." Hawkeye is renamed Nathaniel Poe; Daniel Day Lewis is "Tarzan in thigh-boots;" "This is a flaccid, brainless
- 71. Rosenberg, Scott. "'Mohicans': Last Word?" San Francisco (CA) Examiner (September 25, 1992). [(Mann) "makes a romance between Hawkeye and Cora Munro... but these emotions remain ill-defined and undramatized... I don't think anyone will learn much about frontier life... but if you want to know about 18th century siege warfare or what tomahawk combat really looked like, Mann's your man. The film's most gripping sequence by far is its elaborate tableau of a French attack on an English fort... Too bad so much else in "Mohicans" is more patience-trying than mind-blowing."]
- 72. Salamon, Julie. The Wall Street Journal, "Film: Billy Crystal with Yuks and Schmalz" (September 24, 1992), p. A-15(W & E), 4 column inches. ["Mr. Mann took elaborate pains to recreate the physical landscape of the 18th-century America. He's captured the feeling of the wilderness and the bizarre formality of the warfare of that time." "However he doesn't seem to grasp what the story is about." "It is the kind of movie in which characters don't talk, they exclaim."]
- 73. Schickel, Richard. "Return to a Lost World," Time, Vol. 140, 13 (September 28, 1992), p. 72. [Hawkeye "blending, the Old World tradition of gallantry with the New World's belief in the moral supremacy of those who live in close harmony with nature is our Ur-frontiersman, the archetype on whom every one from William S. Hart to Clint Eastwood has fashioned his variations." "It is the great virtue of this grandly scaled yet deliriously energetic movie that it reanimates that long-ago feeling without patronizing it..."]
- 74. Schruers, Fred. "Mann Overboard," Premiere, Vol. 6, 2 (October 1992), pp. 60-3+. [interviews of Mann, Day-Lewis, Stowe, and crew; story of the strike; stills of Day-Lewis and Mann, Day-Lewis and Huron with tomahawk; Mann on set, and Stowe and Jodhi May fleeing from massacre]
- 75. Serritt, David. "The Last of the
Mohicans," The Christian Science Monitor, 84 (October 2, 1992), p. 12.
["But the screenplay is so wooden and the performances are so distanced that
hardly a shred of real emotion manages to shine through all the action,
violence, and pictorialization."]
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- 76. Sheehan, Henry. Sight and Sound (UK),
Vol. 2 (new series), 7 (November 1992), p. 45-46. [detailed description of
film; "Working with the self-defeating combination of wide-screen composition and long shallow-focus lenses, Mann manages to ensure that his trio ... will look just as divorced from their life-sustaining landscape as the ducks-in-a-row British Redcoats." "Russell Means and Eric Schweig give us plausibly ... and Steven Waddington is perfect as the supercilious ass, Heyward. But Daniel Day-Lewis' Hawkeye is an astonishing array of bad choices..." Mann's "transformation of The Last of the Mohicans into Adirondack Vice is thus a successful and intentional disaster."]
- 77. Shoales, Ian. "Mo'Hicans? No, Thanks," New York Times (September 27, 1992). ["the movie's director is probably responsible for this name change (Nathaniel Poe), as well as giving the old Leatherstocking the actress Madleine Stowe as a love interest. So Natty becomes Nathaniel, a non-smoking hardbody who wears sensible all-natural clothing, is emotionally available and can peg an elk with a tomahawk at 40 paces. If this New Age bumpkin catches on, he could become a kind of Colonial James Bond. The Last of the Mohicans could be the first in a series."]
- 78. Simon, John. "Return of the Native," National Review, Vol. 44, 22 (November 16, 1992), pp. 61-62. ["I have no doubt that the dreadful movie The Last of the Mohicans" does Cooper full justice." "...total confusion about the historical background ... Mann's abject inability to tell a story." "Mann seems blissfully ignorant of cinematic syntax..." "...an audience nurtured on car chases, demolition derbies, and MTV lapped it up (all the running) like mother's mile, however curdled and bloodcurdling. And nonsensical."]
- 79. Smith, Gavin. "Mann Hunters," Film Comment, Vol. 28, 6 (November-December, 1992), pp. 72, 75, 77. [stills: Uncas, Chingachgook, Hawkeye and extras; Stowe as a captive; Day-Lewis running in a fight scene; compares elements of Mann's direction in "Thief," "The Keep," "Manhunter," and "The Last of the Mohicans"]
- 80. ___________, "Michael Mann Wars
and Peace," Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November 1992), pp. 10-14.
[cover: still of Daniel Day-Lewis; half page color stills of Lewis and Indians and of a night bombardment; stills of Cora and Alice escaping the massacre; Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; and of night inside the fort; interview with Gavin Smith covering Mann's professional life]
- 81. Stark, Susan. "Battle Fatigue," Detroit (MI) News (September 25, 1992). ["Starchy writing and a sluggish pace make the film's exposition seem endless." "Indeed, good looks and a well-modulated but impressive physical lead performance by Daniel Day-Lewis are the film's chief defenses against the stretches of dull and pretentious writing." "She (Stowe) manages to convey both the character's fragility and strength, but she gets so many of the script's impossibly bad lines that if they gave out Oscars for valor, she'd be this year's front runner."]
- 82. Stoneman, Donnell. "The Last of the Mohicans," Greensboro (NC) News And Record (August 15, 1991). ["This week filming... begins at 8 nightly and continues until 6 am." "Instead of abandoning the fort, the British resist, leading to a spectacular, fiery battle." "The scene is one of several departures from Cooper's original story." "The basic plot elements, however have been maintained." "Shortly after sunset, most of the extras -- 1,500 were hired; 500 play Indians -- will be taken from the base camp along the valley road to the fort."]
- 83. Strauss, Bob. "`Last of the Mohicans' Rings in First at Weekend Box Office," (Los Angeles, CA) Daily News, (September 29, 1992). ["`Last of the Mohicans' certainly came in first at the week-end movie box office. Grossing nearly $11 million..."]
- 84. Strickier, Jeff. "Last of the
Mohicans," Minneapolis (MN) Star And Tribune (September 25, 1992).
["Shoot-em-up isn't an epic or true to the book." "Gone is most of
Cooper's exploration of individual honor. In its place are love and
war." "So he takes Cooper's plot, incorporates his own soap operatic
touches, add a dab of political correct pronouncements about whites and
American Indians and $35 million later, he's in business." "Mann regards
the book as more of a general outline than a blueprint." "As a
shoot-em-up, its a dandy."]
- 85. Tager, Miles. "The Last of the Mohicans," News and Observer [Raleigh, NC], (Sunday, October 13, 1991), pp. 1H, 4H. [update on Michael Mann's new movie being shot in western NC (Linville Gorge); "Asked what kind of movie "The Last of the Mohicans" would likely be when it opens next spring, he didn't hesitate. "It's going to be a classic, he said."]
- 86. Tarkington, Amy. Seventeen, Vol. 51, 10 (October 1992), p. 92. [still of 16 year old Jodhi May; notice of the new picture]
- 87. Toppman, Lawrence. "'Last' Look: Raw Wilderness," (NY, NY) Daily News (September 20, 1992). [Wes Studi (a Cherokee actor) is quoted as saying, "You have to have villains to have heroes, and we were available. And if my people had been writing the histories, the white settlers would have been the villains." "The script shows Indians coexisting peacefully with frontier settlers, joining them at a dinner table and on playing fields." The movie is revolutionary for Indian actors, said Means, "For the first time, a bad Indian (Magua) has a reason for being bad... The movie shows Indians and non-Indians sharing clothes and lifestyles."]
- 88. _________________. "On Location,"
Charlotte (NC) Observer (September 20, 1992). [same article as above plus
three paragraphs; Means originally ended the film with a pessimistic speech
about the future. This was cut. "Fox executives, Means implies, were
reluctant to ruffle white audiences and even asked if the dinner table scene
- 89. Travers, Peter. Rolling Stone, No. 642
(October 29 1992), pp. 76-77. ["...Mann clumsily lays out the Indian and
white alliances..." "...the action is richly detailed and
thrillingly staged." "Still, the scalpings and eviscerations can't hide
the film's dramatic hollowness."]
- 90. ____________. Ibid, No. 645 (December 10-14, 1992), p. 190. [review of the year]
- 91. Turan, Kenneth, Los Angeles Times,
(September 25, 1992), Calendar, p. 1. ["The Last of the Mohicans" is
unashamedly based more on the Randolph Scott-starring 1936 version than the
original James Fenimore Cooper novel ..." "... the whole panoply of Saturday
matinee emotions has been remarkable adrenalized and given a new and vigorous lease on life." "Stowe ... seems to be making a career of bringing
more life to stilted parts than they have any right to ... turning Cora into the kind of feisty firebrand a no-nonsense guy like Hawkeye would appreciate. As for Daniel Day-Lewis, he proves once again that he is one of those chameleons who can play absolutely anything with complete conviction." "... it is words, ... that "Mohicans" ... has the most trouble with." "If the powers that be had worried a fraction as much about the words .... as they apparently did about the clothes ... and weapons ... none of this would
have been a problem."]
- 92. Verniere, James. "'Miami Vice'
Director puts an MTV-style, Sex-and-action Spin on James Fenimore Cooper's
Classic `Last of the Mohicans'," Boston (MA) Herald (September 25, 1992).
["In Mann's film, Hawkeye is not the blood brother and contemporary of ...
Chingachgook ... he's his adopted son. This re-alignment is strange since
... it makes Hawkeye the last of the Mohicans." In fact, there are so many
box-office-influenced alterations in Mann's version that it isn't "The Last of the Mohicans" at all." "Still, Mann is a talented director who creates
moments of pure cinematic excitement -- the attack on Fort William Henry is a tour de force -- even if they don't have much to do with the novel."]
- 93. Walker, Jeffrey, "Deconstructing and American Myth: Hollywood and the Last of the Mohicans," Film & History Vol. 23, 1&4 (1 February 1993), pp. 104-116. ["Cooper was far more interested in exploring larger moral issues in The Last of the Mohicans, something Hollywood has not recognized in its adaptations of the novel," p. 111; Hawk-eye, for all his centrality in the tale, never serves as the romantic lead or as the hero of the adaptations of Cooper's work, p. 112; still of Daniel Day-Lewis and Madeline Stowe, p. 103]
- 94. Walker, John. ["An ambitious but flawed epic adventure: the characterization is as shallow as the photography, the action is repetitious, the narrative lacks suspense and the romance is
unconvincing with Cooper's self-reliant woodsman here turned into
- 95. Whole Earth Review, No. 78 (Spring, 1993), pp. 106-112. [with the renewed interest in Cooper accompanied with the success of the movie "The Last of the Mohicans," their Hartford correspondent, Samuel Clemens, prepares a critique (actually a reprint of "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses")]
- 96. Will, George F. "To Govern a Nation of Hawkeyes, "The Washington Post, 115 (October 8, 1992), p. A-21. [Hawkeye's response to the British officer, "Don't call myself subject to much at all." has been America's political problem: ...the call of the forest against the claims of community-- that still conditions our politics. ... most Americans
do not feel, or want to feel, subject to much at all."]
- 97. Williamson, Bruce. Playboy, Vol.
39, 12 (December 1992), p. 20-21. ["Hawkeye has such an endless supply of
ammunition you'd swear his flintlock rifle was an Uzi. Even so, director
Michael Mann makes Mohicans an intelligent saga with plenty of edge-of-your-seat excitement."]
- 98. Woodard Richard B. "The Intensely Imagined Life of Daniel Day-Lewis ," The New York Times Magazine, 141 (July 5, 1992), p. 14. [104 column inches; discusses his career and work in LOM]
- 99. Wuntch, Philip. "The Last of the Mohicans An Epic Tale in Scale, Power," Dallas (TX) Morning News (September 25, 1992). [a glowing review: "The film's depiction of combat, with its casual savagery and sudden moments of heroism, is stunning." "Despite its carnage, The Last of the Mohicans is one of the most humane films imaginable." "Mr. Mann's direction is riveting, and those who thought him merely a visual stylist will be surprised at the performance of his cast." "Ms Stowe, who resembles a beautiful cameo at the center of a string of pearls, is captivating as Cora..." "The Last of the Mohicans is epic movie making, grand in scope and human in scale."]
- 100. _____________. "Making History 'Last of the Mohicans' Tells its Story with Authenticity," Dallas (TX) Morning News (October 3, 1992). [I like things done right, Mr. Mann says ... If there's a scene of great impact, and an extra's war paint is wrong, the audience will go right to the war paint. I didn't want Cora to be the typical James Fenimore Cooper fainting lady... He also wanted the American Indians to be portrayed as multidimensional people. Russell Means is quoted, But Last of the Mohicans has character development... and for the first time, a movie shows Indians and non-Indians interacting socially, which happened frequently then.]
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1994 "Hawkeye: The First Frontier"
Sky TV, Britain; Stephen J. Cannell Production; created and written by Kim LeMasters; filmed around Vancouver, Canada; music: Joel Goldsmith; photography: Benton Spencer; editors: Lynne Willingham and Chris G. Willingham; executive producers: David Levinson. Cast included: Lee Horsley as Hawkeye, Rodney A. Grant as Chingachgook, Lynda Carter as Elizabeth Shields, Garwin Sanford as Capt. Taylor Shields, Lochlyn Munro as McKinney, and Jed Rees as Peevey [McKinney and Rees were two teenagers who worked in the store for Elizabeth], and occasionally Duncan Fraser as Col. Munro. [aired in Britain in April; pilot episode:9 -14 & 9 -21- 94]
Synopsis: Story revolves around a fort in 1775. Elizabeth Shields' corrupt brother-in-law [second in command] gets her husband Samuel captured by the Hurons. Hawkeye and Chingachgook visit the fort. Each episode explores life on the frontier, the thuggish Huron Indians, the machinations of the arrogant Taylor, and the developing relationship between Hawkeye and Elizabeth.
- 1. Beck, Marilyn and Smith, Stacy Jenel.
Tribune Media Services, (October 28, 1994). [Lee Horsley will play Hawkeye
in a new 22 episode syndicated series with co-star Lynda Carter. This
Stephen J. Cannel production is based on the legendary frontiersman created by James Fenimore Cooper in his classic 19th-century novels known as the
- 2. Brooks, ["Another of TV's periodic travesties of American history … ]
- 3. Lentz, p. 1630. [lists 1994-95 programs by name, director, and date of production]
Vitagraph production starring Hal Reid and his son (William) Wallace Reid playing a muscular Chingachgook, with Harry T. Morey as the Deerslayer, Ethel Dunne as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Florence E. Turner as Hetty Hunter, and William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak.
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- 1. The Freeman's Journal, "Vitagraph Company of America to Take Moving Pictures of Cooper Tales Here," (July 5, 1911), p. 4. [Mr. And Mrs. L. Trimble arrive to look over the shores of Otsego Lake prior to the filming]
- 2. The Freeman's Journal and the Oneonta Press, "Indian Tribes Coming" (July 19, 1911). [The Vitagraph Company is to be here again in August ... and they will bring with them a band of real Indians numbering probably twenty-five. The chiefs, squaws and papooses will camp out in their native style ... and they will no doubt furnish ... a dash of romance to life in the late summer upon the Glimmerglass."]
- 3. The Freeman's Journal, "Vitagraph Folks Are Here," (September 6, 1911). [Mr. Lawrence Trimble has engaged Luther D. Robinson to build a float to represent Hutter's Castle and Armine Gaziny to assist in the manufacture of suitable craft for the tales of Pioneer days.]
- 4. The Freeman's Journal (September 20, 1911), p. 5. [The Ark was launched with due ceremony on Saturday afternoon, and is now being decorated by Artist Lou Sherwood. "It is not likely that James Fenimore Cooper ever dreamed that the scenes he described upon Otsego Lake in "The Deerslayer" would ever actually occur."]
- 5. The Freeman's Journal, "Cooper in Moving Pictures," (September 27, 1911), p. 1. [After two weeks in rehearsals, the first moving picture in the Deerslayer series was taken. Mr. Edward Thomas has been giving much attention to mastering the art of paddling a canoe. Caribou Bill, the well known Alaskan guide, plays an Indian. Saturday morning the Indians attacked Hutter's Ark, and on the actual spot described by Cooper, near Gravelly Point, Deerslayer killed his first Indian (Hal Wilson). Muskrat Castle is completed. The company has spared no expense in making this true to the Cooper story. "The ice this winter will probably destroy the castle, but its appearance there has suggested the idea that a permanent structure would be a fitting memorial to Cooper and his works, as well as an ornament to the lake."]
- 6. The Moving Picture World (June 3, 1911), p. 1261. [The Vitagraph Company have under course of construction and production the "Leatherstocking Tales," by Fenimore Cooper, including "The Path
Finder," "The Deerslayer," and "The Last of the Mohicans. They will be
replete with the most careful portrayal of the scenes, dress and characteristics of the early periods of American history and Indian Life . . . and showing the encroachments of the white man upon their rights of territory and precedence."]
- 7. Perry, Montanye, Motion Picture Story Magazine, Vol. 3, 12 (February 1912), pp. 49-62. [detailed rendering of the dialog from Larry Trimble's scenario with eleven stills from the film]
- 8. Richfield Mercury (September 21, 1911), p. 1. [Sixteen Vitagraph actors, the advance guard of the company that is to make moving-picture films of scenes from "The Deerslayer" … have arrived in Cooperstown.]
- 9. _______________ (September 28, 1911), p. 1. ["The company is living in Rathbone cottage at Hyde Bay. By means of these films, … this village will be brought to greater prominence than ever before."]
1913 "The Deerslayer"
Two reels, Vitagraph production directed by Hal Reid starring Florence E. Turner (Vitagraph's great first dramatic star known as "The Vitagraph Girl") as Hetty Hunter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Harry T. Morey as The Deerslayer, Ethel Dunn as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak, and (William) Wallace Reid as Chingachgook. [remake/release of the 1911 Vitagraph film]
- 1. Bowser, Vol. 2, p. 241. ["... an impressive pictorial shot looks through a wide door onto water, with this central panel of water and its bright light reflections bordered by two panels of darkness of about equal
- 2. Harrison, Louis Reeves, "Deerslayer," The Moving Picture World, 16 (April 5, 1913), p. 31. ["In this Cowboy-and-Indian period of motion-picture evolution, this era of revolver and scalping knife, of fringed trousers, war paint and feather bonnets, the supreme delight of five-year-old boys, a revival of James Fenimore Cooper's stories seems highly appropriate..." "It is superior to most of the tendency of the times it depicts. " two stills from the Two-Reel Feature, "Deerslayer"]
- 3. The Moving Picture World (May 7, 1913), p. 505-506. [a two part detailed account]
- 4. Wood, Ruth Kedzie. "Leatherstocking Trail," The Bookman, XLI, 5 (July, 1915), pp. 513-521. [pictures of "The Ark" and of "Tom Hutter's Castle" constructed on Otsego Lake by a cinematograph company for the presentation of "The Deerslayer."]
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1923 "The Deerslayer"
Cameo Distributing, 60 minutes, black and white, director: Arthur Wellin, screenplay: Robert Heymann, with Emil Mamelok, Bela Lugosi, Herta Heden, Gottfried Kraus, Edward Eyseneck, and Margot Sokolowska.
Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and his Indian blood brother Chingachgook aid British settlers harassed by the French and Indians in upper New York state.
- 1. Pitt, p. 101. ["picturesque, but jumbled, German silent version ... originally issued in Europe in 1920 by Luna Film as Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking); heavily cut but still worth seeing for Bela Lugosi's performance as Chingachgook."]
Pathé Exchange, directed by George B. Seitz with Harold Miller as Leatherstocking; Edna Murphy as Judith Hutter; Lillian Hall as Hetty, Judith's sister; Whitehorse as "Floating Tom Hutter;" David Dunbar as Chingachgook; Frank Lackteen as Briarthorn, and Lou Short. [a ten chapter motion picture serial of The Deerslayer; Chapter Titles: 1. The Warpath; 2. The Scarlet Trail; 3. The Hawk's Eyes [copyright: 20 Feb. 1924]; 4. The Paleface Law; 5. Ransom; 6. The Betrayal; 7. Rivenoak's Revenge; 8. Out of the Storm; 9. The Panther [copyright: 18 April 1924]; and Chapter 10. Mingo Torture [copyright: 24 April 1924]; publicity claimed the episodes were based on The Deerslayer, but reviewers didn't think so]
- 1. Freeman's Journal and the Oneonta Press, "`Leatherstocking' New Pathé Film," (Wednesday, February 13, 1924), p. 1. [reprint from Photoplay Sidelights (a broadsheet devoted to the regular releases of Pathé films) concerning the 10 episode serial directed by Geroge B. Seitz]
- 2. Harmon, p. 323. ["... a story of the American frontier, with Indians on the warpath, attacking panthers, and various forms of sadistic torture devised by the savages."]
- 3. Lahue, p. 242. [chapter titles listed]
- 4. Gray, George Arthur. Leatherstocking. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1924. [8 leaves of plates: illustrated with scenes from the Pathé Serial]
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1943 "The Deerslayer"
Republic Pictures, produced by P. S. Harrison and E. B. Derr, directed by Lew Landers and starring Bruce Kellogg as Deerslayer with Yvonne De Carlo as Wah-Tah-Wah, Adddison Richards as Tom Hutter, Jean Parker as Judith, Wanda McKay as Hetty, Warren Ashe as Harry March, Phil Van Zandt as Briarthorn, Johnny Michaels as Bobby Hunter, Larry Parks as Jingo-Good, Trevor Bardette as Chief Rivenoak, Robert Warwick as Uncas, Chief Many Treaties as Chief Brave Eagle, Princess Whynemak as Duenna, Clancy Cooper as Mr. Barlow, and William Edmund as the Huron Sub-Chief.
Synopsis:Story has Kellogg aiding Jean Parker and her party of settlers who are caught in the middle of an Indian war. An Indian
princess, Yvonne De Carlo who is promised to a young brave (Larry Parks) is
kidnapped by a Huron tribe rival (Philip Van Zandt as Briarthron) who also burns the tribe's village. Deerslayer Kellogg leads his tribe in defeating the Hurons and of course, rescuing the princess. Settings shot on location are excellent, Hutter's Castle was built in the center of a lake; the acting good, and the plot and characterizations nearly faithful to the original; exceptions: old Hutter has a son Bobby who is shot by Hurons early in the film; Hetty Hutter feigned madness (a cinematic technique often used to get Indians to believe that the person is possessed by the gods); and Judith Hutter rejects Deerslayer in favor of his friend Harry March. Kellogg played Deerslayer well, Larry Parks was too stiff as Chingachgook; Jean Parker was too troubled as Judith; Wanda McKay was excellent as Hetty, and Yvonne DeCarlo was bewitching as Wah-Tah-Wah.
- 1. Agee, p. 61. ["But this defenseless and disarming show is the purest dumb delight I have seen in a long time."]
- 2. Garfield, p. 146. ["This one was just possibly the worst of all the rotten film versions of Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales;"]
- 3. Hardy, p. 135. ["...a film that has its origins in James Fenimore Cooper's classic novel but is best remembered for being the most inept production ever to be released under Republic's banner." still of Parks, McKay, Parker, and Kellogg standing on the deck of Hutter's Castle]
- 4. Nash, p. 613. ["An unbelievable inept adaptation of James Fenimore Cooper's classic tale that turns the white boy raised by Mohicans into an Indian-fighting super hero who gets himself into and out of more jams than the average serial hero did in a month."]
- 5. New York Daily News called the film "just like a refugee from a nickelodeon"
- 6. Don Miller noted in B Movies, 1973: "...the action was crammed full of such unintended howlers as a band of horsemen riding point blank past an Indian ambush without receiving a scratch; a brave lying prone on a rock somehow managing to receive a wound in a part of his body completely obliterated from view; notable and frequent flaws in acting, dialogue, logic and exposition..."
- 7. Pitts, p. 101. ["Tacky presentation of the James Fenimore Cooper story;"]
- 8. Variety "Deerslayer," signed "Walt" (November 10, 1943). ["Harrison draws a complete blank as a producer-scenarist..." "Plot is a disjointed display of Indian warfare that might have passed inspection in the early nickelodeon days..." "Deerslayer is a super-hero, who continuously eludes the Indians, and, when he's captured, easily escapes at the most convenient spots for script purposes." "After sufficient footage of amateurish jumble, the battling tribe is dispersed to bring peace to the district." "Direction by Lew Landers is sophomoric."]
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1956 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"
39 episode (30 minutes each) syndicated TV series, directed by Sam Newfield; produced by Sigmund Neufeld, with John Hart as Hawkeye and Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook. [made-in-Canada telefilm; four telefeatures were made from this serial: "Along the Mohawk Trail;" "The Long Rifle;" "The Pathfinder and the Mohican;" and "The Redmen and the Renegades"]
1957 "The Deerslayer"
Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, color, 76 minutes, directed and produced by Kurt Neumann, filmed at Bass Lake in the High Sierras. Lex Barker played the Deerslayer with Rita Moreno as Hetty Hutter, Forrest Tucker as Harry March, Jay C. Flippin as Tom Hutter, Cathy O'Donnell as Judith Hutter, Carlos Rivas as Chingachgook, John Halloran as Old Warrior, Joseph Vitale as chief of the Hurons, stunts: Rocky Shahan, Phil Schumacker, George Robotham, and Carol Henry.
Synopsis: Story, loosely based on Cooper's novel, has
Deerslayer and Chinghachgook trying to avert and Indian war. Tom Hutter
and his two daughters have been living on an island fort. He has been
taking Huron scalps for years and the Indians want revenge. Rita Moreno,
who played Hetty Hutter and Wah-Ta-Wah combined into one character, was a
Huron baby adopted by Hutter. She returns to her tribe after her father is
killed. Briarthorn was omitted.
- 1. Cahoon, Herbert. "The Deerslayer," Library Journal, 82 (October 15, 1957), p. 2525. ["It is doubtful if this ... would make an enjoyable motion picture if the plot and action of the novel were strictly adhered to; and in this version the plot has been revised, mainly in the direction of a totally happy ending. But the characters which Cooper created and his imaginative armed houseboat setting distinguish this picture... the Deerslayer and Chingachgook ... are true Cooper characters ... Cooper's females have little to do, as usual. Cooper's dialogue had its faults, but stands head and shoulders above that in the current screenplay."]
- 2. Garfield, p. 146. ["Cheapie was filmed on indoor sets with stock rear-projection footage of scenery. It is marginally better than the ludicrous 1943 version but who cares?"]
- 3. Maltin, p. 322. ["… novel is given pedestrian treatment, with virtually all indoor sets and rear-screen projection."]
- 4. Senior Scholastic, "Following the Films," 71 (November 15, 1957), p. 33. ["This film is not up to Last of the Mohicans, an earlier Cooper Classic, but all the elements of excitement are still there." Rated "good;" still of Barker and Carlos Rivas]
- 5. Variety, "The Deerslayer," signed "Whit." (September 18, 1957), p. 6. ["a well-turned-out actioner ... slanted particularly for demands of the juve trade." "Baker plays his part convincingly and has okay support ..."]
- 6. Wheaton, p. 30. [script by Carroll Young and Kurt Neumann housed at University of Southern California]
1969 "Vinatorul de cerbi"
[Blame the Stag] (Romania), directed by Jean Dreville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergiu Nicolaescu.
1978 "The Deerslayer"
Motion picture, Classics Illustrated, 90 minutes, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels (87 minutes), sound/color, 16 mm. Produced by Bill Conford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer. [because of release date (18 December 1978) this is probably the same film as the 1979 SCHICK SUNN production cited below]
1979 "The Deerslayer"
Schick Sunn Classics/ NBC-TV, color, 104 minutes, directed by Dick Friedenberg, teleplay: S. S. Schweitzer. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook [a repeat of their roles in the 1977 "Last of the Mohicans"], John Anderson as Hutter, Joan Prather as Judith Hutter, Madeline Stowe as Hetty Hunter, Victor Mohica as Chief Rivenoak, Charles Dierkop as Hurry Harry March, Brian Davies as Lt. Plowden, Ted Hamilton as Sieur de Beaujour, Ruben Moreno as Tamenund, Betty Ann Carr as Wa-Wa-Ta, and Alma Beltran, Rosa Maria Hudson, Andrew William Lewis, Stephen Craig Taylor.
Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and Chingachgook help
Chief Rivenoak get his kidnapped daughter back from a rival tribe.
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1911 "The Pathfinder"
Directed by Laurence Trimble with Wallace Reid.
1952 "The Pathfinder"
Columbia Pictures, technicolor, 78 minutes; directed by Sidney Salkow; screenwriter: Robert E. Kent; starring George Montgomery as Pathfinder aided by Jay Silverheels (a Mohawk Indian) as Chingachgook, Ed Coch, Jr. as Uncas, Helena Carter as Welcome Alison, Rodd Redwing as Chief Arrowhead is the leader of the hostile Mingos, Elena Verdugo plays Lokawa the wife of a British soldier, Chief Yowlachie as Eagle Feather, Russ Conklin as Togamak, Vi Ingraham as Ka-Letan, Adele St. Maur as the matron, Bruce Lester as Capt. Bradford, Stephen Bekassy as Col. Brasseau, and Walter Kingsford as Col. Duncannon.
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Synopsis Story has British troops rescue captured
British scout Montgomery, masquerading as a French scout, and his interpreter Carter who are about to face a French firing squad at St. Vincente, 1754. Neither Uncas nor Chingachgook die. Montgomery ends up with Carter. Chingachgook informs the Pathfinder that Carter is "much better than
- 1. Christian Century, 70, 31 (January 7, 1953) ["Adventure tale is competent enough, but pedestrian. Displays little of imagination of significant comment, conveys none of the favor of the Cooper original."]
- 2. Garfield, p. 257. ["There's plenty of action but not much of a script in this cheap adaptation..."]
- 3. Pitts, p. 304. ["Another tepid retelling of James Fenimore Cooper's "Leatherstocking" tales, this time embellished by color."]
- 4. Variety "The Pathfinder," signed "Brog" (December 17, 1952). [George Montgomery is an excellent hero, displaying his muscles in rugged response to the title role's demands." "The couple finds time for romance along with their spying..." "Jay Silverheels is good as a Mohican who aids Montgomery, and Stephen Bekassy shows up well as the French commandant." "Most of the players have difficulty maintaining accents consistent with their characters."]
1973 "Hawkeye, The Pathfinder"
BBC in co-production with 20th Century Fox TV and ABC TV; producer: John McRae; director: David Maloney Century Theatre; Five part [55 minutes each] serial dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell; Hawkeye: Paul Massie; Chingachgook: John Abineri. [Erickson, p. 260; Vahimagi, p. 197]
[Pathfinder] (Russian), color, 91 minutes, adapted and directed by: Pavel Lyubimov; cinematography: Anatoli Grishko; music: Yuri Saulsky. Cast: Yuri Avsharov, Andris Zagars, Anastasiya Nemolyayeva, Emmanuil Vitorgan, Andrei Mironov, and other minor players.
Producer: John Danylkiw; director: Donald Shebib, Cast: Kevin Dillon as Natty Bumppo, Michael Hogan as Cap; Graham Green as Chingachcook, Jaimz Woolvett as Jasper Weston, Russell Means as Arrowhead, Charles Powell as Lt. Zale, Ralph Kussman as guard on ship, Stacy Keach as Compte du Leon a pompous French general, Laurie Holden as Mable Dunham with Dan MacDonald, Stephen Russell, Michelle St. John, Lawrence Boyne. and Bermard Behrens.
- 1. Mike Levy, "Film crew is reviving famed tale by Cooper," Buffalo News (August 6, 1995), pp. C1, C3. ["The Pathfinder" – a small-budget TV movie (1.5 million) has staged scenes at Midland, Ontario, St. Mary Among the Hurons mission and fort and in the Niagara Gorge. Shooting is expected to take three weeks instead of the six or eight weeks it usually takes.
- 2. Maltin, p. 1043. ["Atmospheric though episodic retelling of James Fenimore Cooper's French and Indian Wars saga."]
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1947 "The Prairie"
Screen Guild, black and white,
68 minutes, directed by Frank Wisbar (Franz Wysbar); screenplay: Arthur St.
Clare. Cast: Alan Baxter as Paul Hover, Lenore Aubert as Ellen Wade, Russ
Vincent as Abiram White, Jack Mitchum as Asa Bush, Charles Evans as Ishmael
Bush, Edna Holland a Esther Bush, Fred Coby as Abner Bush, Bill Murphy as
Jess Bush, David Gerber as Gabe Bush, Don Lynch as Enoch Bush, George Morrell as Luke, Beth Taylor as Annie Morris, Chief Yowlachie as Mahtoree, Chief Thunder Cloud as Eagle Feather, Jay Silverheels as Running Deer and Frank Hemmingway the Commentary.
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- 1. Nash, p. 2444. ["A good cast and decent script could have used higher production values and stronger direction."]
- 2. Variety, signed "Jose" (October 25, 1948), p. 8. [Cooper's novels "have provided excellent screen fare for several decades. They usually have action, broad sweeps of motion and well-defined story lines, and "The Prairie" follows form." "Cast is uniformly good with Lenore Aubert providing the romantic interest while Russ Vincent and Jack Mitchum do well as the feuding brothers. Charles Evans is excellent as the patriarch, and Baxter similarly does okay as the buckskin man of the hour. The photography is okay and the musical background adequate."]
1941 "The Pioneers"
Monogram Pictures, black and white, 59 minutes; directed by Al Herman; screenplay: Charles Anderson. Cast: Tex Ritter as Tex, Arkansas `Slim' Andrews as Slim; Red Foley as Red; Doye O'Deil as Doye; Wanda McKay as Suzanna; George Chesbro as Wilson; Del Lawrence as Ames; Post Park as Benton; Karl Hackett as Carson; Lynton Brent as Jingo; Chick Hannon as Pete; Gene Alsace as Sheriff; Jack C. Smith as Judge; Chief Many Treaties as Warcloud; Chief Soldani as Lonedeer; Red Foley's Saddle Pals; and
White Flash the Horse.
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Synopsis: Story line has Ritter and mule-riding ["imagine pursuing, or being pursued by scalp-hot Injuns -- aboard a mule."] sidekick Andrews are hired to protect a wagon train. A gang of villains stir up the Indians to keep Ritter busy. Cooper's name appeared in the credits and the press book advised exhibitors to arrange with their local libraries for special displays of "Cooper's popular works;" but no character in the film was taken from the book, no dialogue, and no incidents resembled Cooper's plot. The film consisted largely of stock footage: the Indian attack was taken from the 1933 Mascot serial "Fighting with Kit Carson" and used again by Finney in "Buffalo Bill in Tomahawk Territory."
- 1. Variety, signed "Wood," "The Pioneers (with songs)" (June 25, 1941). ["Routine western. Though it's stocked with more than the usual amount of gunplay and sundry battles, `Pioneers' never gets out of the ordinary." "Hot and heavy action, in the few fights depicted, is the only thing that saves the whole thing from the doldrums." "Ritter himself handles his assignment as a protector of a wagon train of settlers...in proper style, just oozing confidence in anything he tackles." " Wanda McKay's the femme interest. She handles herself with considerably more ease than the average." "Red Foley's Saddle Pals kick in with a few trail tunes, none of more than passing interest."]
- 2. Andersen, Charles. "The Pioneers," Hollywood, CA: Boots & Saddles Pictures, 1941, filmscript, 76 pages.
1914 "The Spy"
Universal, silent, black and white, directed by Otis Turner; screenwriter: James Dayton. Cast included Herbert Rawlinson as Harvey Birch (the spy), Edna Maison as Katrie his sweetheart, Ella Hall as Frances Wharton, William Worthington as Gen. Washington, Edward Alexander as Maj. Dunwoodie, Rex De Rosselli as Mr. Wharton, J. W. Pike and his son Henry, and Frank Lloyd as Jake Parsons.
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Synopsis: Story line has Birch allowing himself to be arrested so he can be questioned by Washington; Washington allows him to escape; Maj. Dunwoodie offers a reward; Henry, a British officer, comes to bid his family goodbye and is allowed safe passage because of the intent of his visit; Maj. Dunwoodie must arrest him as a traitor when he is found in an American uniform; Birch, disguised as a minister, changes clothes with Henry; Birch does not use the letter to save himself, but at the last moment the Gen. arrives and orders a search which reveals Birch's innocence.
- 1. Variety, "The Spy," review signed "Mark" (March 27, 1914). [Here's a picture that no exhibitor need be ashamed to book and give it all the outside billing he can as it is a clean cut American story from start to finish. "The Spy" is in four parts and announced as an adaptation of James Fenimore Cooper's novel of that title. It's an Universal feature
with some of the finest exterior scenes shown by the camera in many
moons. "The Spy" may not be the greatest story ever done by the movie, but it is one that has sufficient interest to carry it along to big returns. It makes a play upon one's patriotism and right well has Otis Turner directed the photoplay. The spy in the movie scenario, is Harvey Birch, of the household of Gen. George Washington, who has the young man doing all sorts of daring work, gaining news of value to Washington and delivering false messages to the British. The spy makes Washington's own men believe that he's a British spy in order that he can move with greater freedom through the enemy's lines. The ruse works so splendidly that no one divines the truth until the close of the picture when Washington's men are about to hang him on a public scaffold. Through the picture the soldiers on both sides prepare for the attack, the big conflict coming off at a ridge which the Washington army fighters undermine as the Britishers start to cross it. The collapse of a section of the bridge with the soldiers on it causes quite a gasp being cleverly staged. A sharp conflict at the water's edge follows with some of the British men toppling off backwards into the stream. It's a thriller that movie patrons relish. The spy makes all sorts of escapes after being captured time and again and he has the soldiers on both sides up in the air, so to speak. There's a strong love story running through the feature. The spy has a sweetheart whom he visits under risk or capture. Then there's Major Dunwoodie, played by Edward Alexander, who was rather effeminate to be true in gestures and appearance, but sufficiently soldierly to pass in the trappings of the American commander of a troop of Washington's soldiers. The major loves Frances Wharton who is captured by the "skinners" (a band of renegade soldiers who foraged, killed and plundered regardless whether their victims be friends or foes). There's a timely rescue by the spy who, in turn, brings her safely into the American camp. At the Wharton home comes General Washington, who encounters Captain Wharton, of the opposing forces. In succession follows a series of outdoor maneuvers in scenic spots with Wharton finally being taken prisoner, tried by the American council of war and sentenced to be hung. Then the
spy, disguised as a minister, visits Wharton in his cell, changes clothes and permits him to escape. For the finale comes the gallows scene with the spy being restored to good standing by the arrival of Washington who orders the man searched. A signed parchment from the General himself reveals the
spy in his true colors. Regardless of any fault any of the "critical critics" may find in the story there's no denying that photographically and scenically the picture is there. The Universal has gone to a lot of expense in giving the scenes as historic and true a setting as possibly could be made under the circumstances.
............Herbert Rawlinson enacts the spy and does some bully good
work. He is full of "pep" and scoots about his business in a
typical American way. Edna Maison is his sweetheart and does well what little is allotted to her. Ella Hall is Frances Wharton and she's a likely looking miss--one of those sweet blondes who, in the old fashion dresses, is
irresistibly nice before the cameras -- and she handles her role creditably. William Worthington is a handsome Washington inclined at times to assume "actory poses," but does the best he can with a role that few photoplay actors dislike to attempt. Some of the minor characters were excellently played, the two negro servants filling in nicely in their respective roles while several of those "skinners," in point of makeup and work lived up to their parts. There's one actor who will long be remembered after the picture leaves the movie house and that's the beautiful white charger which Washington rides in "The Spy."]
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- 1. "Last of the Redmen," motion picture, Columbia
Pictures Corporation, 1947, 3 reels (77 minutes), sound, black & white,
16mm. [director: George Sherman; screenplay Herbert Dalmas and George H.
Plympton; producer: Sam Katzman with Jon Hall, Michael O'Shea, Evelyn Ankers, Julie Bishop (Jacqueline Wells), Buster Crabbe, and Rick Vallin.
SynopsisStory line: led into an ambush by a renegade Iroquois, a small band of whites escapes death only because the last of the Mohicans sacrifices his life for theirs.
- 2. "Last of the Redmen," videorecording, Columbia Pictures, director: George Sherman, Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1992, 1 videocassette (79 minutes), sound, color, 2 inch VHS, not rated, $19.95. [originally released as a motion picture in 1947]
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- 1. "The Spy," Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio, 1981, radio play, 1 cassette (59 minutes), 7/8 ips, mono; director: Timothy Jerome. [broadcast July 4, 1981 on NPR]
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- 1. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts &
Sciences and The Writers Guild of America, West. who wrote the movie and
what else did he write? Los Angeles, CA, 1970, pp. 314, 360, 363,
- 2. Adams, Les and Rainey, Buck. Shoot-em-ups The Complete Reference Guide to Westerns of the Sound Era. New York: Arlington House, 1978, p. 72 ("The Last of the Mohicans" 1932); pp. 142-143 ("The Last of the Mohicans" 1936);p. 291 ("Deerslayer" 1943); p. 357 ("The Prairie" 1947); p. 432 ("The Pathfinder" 1953).
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- 3. Agate, James. "Red Indians Again," Around Cinemas
(second series). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Home & Van Thal, 1948, pp.
132-134. [1936 reprint from The Tatler on "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 4. Agee, James. Agee On Film, 2 Vols. New York: Grosset & Dunlap,
1967, Vol. 1, p. 61.
- 5. Allan, Elkan, ed. A Guide to World
Cinema. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1985, p. 307 (Seitz's "Last of the
Mohicans"). [from the programmes of the 1950-1984 National Film Theatre,
- 6. Anderson, Carolyn, "Film and Literature, " in Edgerton,
Gary R., ed. Film and the Arts in Symbiosis. New York: Greenwood
Press, 1988, p. 100.
- 7. Axeen, David. "Eastern Western," Film
Quarterly, Vol. 32, 4 (Summer 1979), pp. 17-18. [compares Mike, the
central character in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter" with Cooper's Natty
- 8. Barker, Martin, "First and Last Mohicans," Sight and
Sound, Vol. 3, 8 (August 1, 1993), pp. 26-29. ["Why has ‘The
Last of the Mohicans' been the subject of so many films and comic
- 9. Barker, Martin and Sabin, Roger. The Lasting of
the Mohicans History of an American Myth. Jackson, MS: University Press of
- 10. Baskin, Ellen and Kicken, Mandy, compilers. Enser's
Filmed Books and Plays. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 1987, pp.
- 11. Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P.
Images of American Indians on Film. New York: Garland, 1985, pp. 33, 119 (1936 "Last of the Mohicans"); p. 193 (1977 "Last of the Mohicans"); p. 127
("Last of the Redmen"); p. 141 (1952 "Pathfinder")
- 12. Blum, Daniel. A Pictorial History of the Silent Screen. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953, p. 189
- 13. __________ . A NEW Pictorial History of the Talkies, revisions by John Kobal. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1958. p. 8.
- 14. Bodeen, Dewitt. "Wallace Reid," Films in Review, 17, 4 (April 1966), pp. 205-230. [numerous stills of Reid; lists his 171 films]
- 15. Bold, Christine. "How the Western Ends: Fenimore Cooper to Frederick
Remington," Western American Literature, 17, 2 (August, 1982), pp. 117-135.
[shows similarities of elements of Western author's stories with
- 16. Bowser, Eileen, introduction. Biograph Bulletins
1908-1912. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Octagon Books, 1973,
p. 128 ("Leather Stocking"). [the "bulletins" were broadsides printed to
advertise the product and to be thrown away; provides detailed plot summaries written by Biograph staff member Lee Dougherty of the early D. W. Griffith films]
- 17. . The Transformation of Cinema 1907-1915, Vol. 2 of Harpole, Charles, general editor. History of the American Cinema, 3 Vols. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990, p. 241. [1913 "The Deerslayer"]
- 18. Brooks, Tim and Marsh, Earle. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946-Present, 6th Ed. New York: Ballantine Books,
- 19. Brown, Gene, Editor. New York Times Encyclopedia
of Film, 13 Vols. New York: Times Books, 1984.
- 20. Brownlow,
Kevin. "Clarence Brown," in Brownlow, K. The Parade's Gone By.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968, pp. 142-144. [1920 LOM]
- 21. Burgess, Anthony. "Said Mr. Cooper to His Wife: `You Know, I Could Write Something Better Than That,'" New York Times Magazine Section (May 7, 1972), pp. 108, 112-115. [British novelist and critic looks at Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales; "The gifts of our colors may be different, but God has so placed us as to journey in the same path." Chingachgook and Hawkeye, hands clasped, weeping, standing over Uncas' grave: "May that image go on haunting the American people."]
- 22. Buscombe, Edward, ed. The BFI Companion to the
Western. New York: Atheneum, 1988, p. 404 ("Deerslayer"), p. 411 (1971 &
1977 "Last of the Mohicans").
- 23. Butler, Michael D. "Sons of Oliver
Edwards; or, The Other American Hero," Western American Literature, XII, 1
(Spring, 1977), pp. 53-66. [the changing character of Natty and Oliver
Edwards in film and literature]
- 24. Calder, Jenni. There Must Be a Lone Ranger The American West in Film and in Reality. New York: Taplinger Publishing, 1975, pp. 3, 38-40, 93.
- 25. Catalog of Copyright Entries Cumulative Series Motion Pictures 1912-1939. Washington, DC: Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, 1951.
["Leatherstocking," p. 464] also "The Last Mohican," Columbia Pictures
9 minutes, sound B&W, 35mm.
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- 26. Catalog Historical Films, 1894-1915. Hollywood, CA: Historical Films, 1968, p. 31. [first generation 16mm negatives rephotographed directly from the 35mm for sale at $.10 a foot; The 1909 "Leather Stocking" was listed with 372 feet of 16mm footage]
- 27. Cawelti, John G. "Cowboys Indians Outlaws," American West, Vol. 1, 2 (Spring 1964), pp. 28-35, 77-79. [Greatest literary monument to the legendary West is Cooper's Leatherstocking Series, published between 1823 and 1841. p. 33]
- 28. . "Myths of Violence in American Popular Culture," Critical Inquiry, 1, 3 (March 1975), pp. 521-541.
- 29. . "Cooper and the Beginnings of the Western Formula," in Cawelti, J.
G. Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular
Culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1976, pp. 194-209,
- 30. . The Six-Gun Mystique, 2nd ed. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green
State University Popular Press, 1984, pp. 15, 17, 61-64, 69, 72-73, 89-91,
116-7, 143, passim.
- 31. . "Cooper and the Frontier Myth and Anti-Myth," Dutch Quarterly Review, Vol. 20, 3 (1990), pp. 177-186. [James Fenimore Cooper Issue]
- 32. Commire, Anne, ed. Something about the Author. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, 64 Vols., 1980, Vol. 19, pp. 68-92. [illustrations from "Last of the Mohicans," 1936; "The Pathfinder," 1953; "The Last of the Redmen," 1947; and "The Deerslayer," 1957]
- 33. Connelly, Robert B. The Motion Picture Guide Silent Film 1910 -1936. Chicago, IL: Cinebooks, 1986, p. 145 ("The Last of the Mohicans"); p. 339 ("The Deerslayer"); p. 415 ("The Spy").
- 34. Cooke, Alistair. "Masterpiece Theatre Chronology," Masterpieces: A
Decade of Masterpiece Theatre. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981.
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Deerslayer, or, the First Warpath. James
Beard, Historical introduction and explanatory notes. Text established by
Lance Schachterle, Kent Ljungquist and James Kilby. Albany, NY: State
University of New York Press, 1987. [The Writings of James Fenimore
- 36. Davidson, Bill. "America Discovers a `Sacred Monster',"
New York Times (September 22, 1974). [Charles Bronson will do a remake of
"The Last of the Mohicans," once played by Bronson's idol Wallace Berry, after he finishes "Hard Times"(1975)]
- 37. Dimmitt,
Richard Bertrand. A Title Guide To the Talkies, 2 Vols. New York:
The Scarecrow Press, 1965, p. 385 ("Deerslayer"), p. 919 ("The Last of the
Mohicans"), p. 920 ("The Last of the Redman"), p. 1294 ("The Pathfinder"), p. 1320 ("The Pioneers"), p. 1337 ("The Prairie"). [source for author
and title of work on which film was based]
- 38. Drew,
Bernard A. Motion Picture Series and Sequels, New York: Garland, 1990, pp.
- 39. Dunne, Philip. Take Two A life in Movies and
Politics. NY: McGraw Hill, 1980, pp. 33, 35-36, 386.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, "James Fenimore Cooper," 1958.
- 41. Engel, Leonard W. "Sam Peckinpah's Heroes: Natty
Bumppo and the Myth of the Rugged Individual Still Reign," Literature/ Film
Quarterly, 16, 1 (1988), pp. 22-30. [compares The Prairie and The
Deerslayer to Peckinpah's western films]
. "Space and Enclosure in Cooper and Peckinpah: Regeneration in the Open
Spaces," Journal of American Culture, 14, 2 (Summer, 1991), pp.
86-93. [regeneration in Cooper's novels and Peckinpah's film "The Wild
- 43. Enser, A. G. S. Filmed Books and Plays A List of
Books and Plays from which Films have been Made, 1928-1974. London: Andre
Deutsh, 1968, pp. 274, 513.
- 44. . Ibid, 1928-1986, Hampshire, England: Gower, 1985, pp. 155, 393, 718, 719.
- 45. Erickson, Hal. Syndicated Television The First
Forty Years, 1974-1987. Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland &
Company, 1989, pp. 29, 260.
- 46. Etulain, Richard. "Origins of the
Western," Journal of Popular Culture, V, 4 (Spring 1972), pp. 799-805.
["The Western also continued an American melodramatic tradition that had
appeared earlier in such sources as the writing of James Fenimore
- 47. Etuklain, Richard W. "The Western," in Inge,
M(ilton) Thomas, Handbook of American Popular Culture, 3 Vols. London,
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978, Vol. 1, pp. 356-376.
- 48. Everson, William K. A Pictorial History of the Western Film. New York: Citadel Press, 1969, pp. 88, 169.
- 49. . American Silent Film. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978, pp.
69, 150-151 ("Last of the Mohicans"), p. 240 ("Leatherstocking"). [between
pages 246 and 247: two stills of "natural" arch of rock used to frame action in Tourneur's "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 50. Fenin, George N. and Everson, William K. The Western from Silents to the Seventies. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973, pp. 166, 315, 325.
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- 51. Folsom, James K. "James Fenimore Cooper: The Materials of Western Story," in Folsom, J. K. The American Western Novel. New Haven, CT: College and University Press, 1966, pp. 36-59. [the "combination of the novel of
action with the novel of reflection is Cooper's greatest single legacy to
subsequent western story..."]
. "Precursors of the Western Novel," in Taylor, J. Golden, Ed.
A Literary History of the American West. Fort Worth, TX: Texas
Christian University Press, 1987, pp. 141-51.
- 53. , ed. The Western, A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979, p. 172.
- 54. Franklin, Joe. Classics of the Silent Screen A Pictorial Treasury. New York: Citadel Press, 1959, pp. 42-43, 253.
- 55. Frayling, Christopher. Spagetti Westerns Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, pp. 29, 113, 261.
- 56. Friar, Ralph E. and Natasha A. The Only Good
Indian... The Hollywood Gospel. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1972,
pp. 9-10, 144-145, passim. [still of Wallace Beery as Magua (with socks
rolled down) and other Indians from the 1920 film "Last of the Mohicans," p.
145; still of Seitz's 1936 "Last of the Mohicans," p. 187]
- 57. Garfield,
Brian. Western Films. New York: Rawson Associates, 1982, pp. 146,
210, 211, 257.
- 58. Gianakos, Larry James.sp; Television Drama Series
Programming: A Comprehensive Chronicle, 1959-1975. Metuchen, NJ: The
Scarecrow Press, 1978, p. 683 ("Last of the Mohicans").
. Ibid, 1975-1980, p. 372-373. ("Hawkeye and the Last of the
. Ibid, 1982-1984, p. 425 ("The Pathfinder").
- 61. Graham, Cooper C., Higgins, Steven, Mancini,
Elaine, and Viera, João Luiz. D. W. Griffith and the Biograph
Company. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1985, p. 61.
- 62. Grant,
Barry K., ed. Film Genre: Theory and Criticism. Metuchen, NJ: The
Scarecrow Press, 1977, pp. 200-201, 207, 108.
- 63. Greenberg,
Alvin. The Invention of the West. New York: Avon Books, 1976.
- 64. Griffith,
D. W. Mrs. (Linda Arvidson). "Cuddebackville," in Griffith, D. W.
When the Movies were Young. New York: Benjamine Blom, 1925, pp.
120-123. [Mrs. Griffith tells how they found a genuine pre-revolutionary
stone house they used in "Leather Stocking," a gentle horse named "Mother"
[she had never ridden until this film], and the "Indians" (men and the "girls who 'did' Indians") cleaning off the brown bolamenia from their legs and arms before a plunge in the cool waters of the Big Basin]
- 65. Halliwell,
Leslie. Halliwell's Film Guide. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1985, p. 559.
- 66. Hardy, Phil. The Aurum Film Encyclopedia The
Western, Vol. 1. London: Aurum Press, 1983, p. 61 ("Last of the
Mohicans"), p. 135 ("Deerslayer"), p. 291 ("The Last Tomahawk").
Harkness, John. "White Noise," Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November
1992), p. 15. [Cooper is not a great figure in American literature ...
because of plot or dialogue. ... Rather his novels endure because their plots and dialogue are the wrappings that cover dark secrets and terrible
things. In Cooper, one finds the origins of the obsessions of American
culture (the ambivalent balance between civilization and the unknown West; the isolated hero). Mark Twain may have written one of the most scathing
attacks on Cooper ... but what is Huckleberry Finn but the boy version of
- 68. Harmon, Jim and Glut, Donald F. The Great Movie Serials Their Sound and Fury. New York: Doubleday, 1972, pp. 323-325.
- 69. Harris, Edward. "Cooper on Stage," Cooperstown,
NY: James Fenimore Cooper Society Electronic Series, No. 1, 1997. [on this website]
- 70. Hilger, Michael. The American Indian in Film. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1986, passim.
Hitt, Jim. The American West from Fiction (1823-1976) into Film
(1909-1986). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, pp. 2-3, 9-12, 26,
- 72. Horak, Jan-Christopher. "Maurice Tourneur's
Tragic Romance," in Peary, Gerald and Shatzkin, Roger, eds. The Classic
American Novel and Movies. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company,
1977, pp. 10-19. [p. 13: a still of Uncas, Cora, Hawkeye and Chingachgook
holding the line of defense as Heyward looks on as Alice ministers to David
Gamut from the 1920 "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 73. Horak,
Jan-Christopher. "Essay on The Last of the Mohicans" in Weber, Alfred and
Friedl, Bettina, eds. Film und Literatur in America. Darmstadt:
Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellchaft, 1988, pp. 119-134. [LOM is
"one of the greatest literature/film adaptations of the silent era"]
The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, 5 Vols. Chicago, IL:
St. James Press, 1984.
- 75. J., W. H. "The Last of the Mohicans and
the Cinema," Notes & Queries, [London], 185 (July 3, 1943), pp. 9-10.
Return to Table of Contents
Jones, Daryl Emrys. The Dime Novel Western. Bowling Green, OH:
Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1978, p. 37. [the comic
"sidekick" as descend from Cooper's David Gamut]
. "The Dime Novel Western: The Evolution of a Popular Formula," Michigan
State University, 1974. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36/01A, p.
- 78. Jowett, Garth S. "The Concept of History in
American Produced Films: an Analysis of the Films Made in the Period 1950-1961," Journal of Popular Culture, III, 4 (Spring 1970), pp. 799-813. ["Neither of the two Cooper stories were very faithful to the originals." "The Pathfinder" (1952); "The Deerslayer" (1957)]
- 79. Kinnard, Roy. Fifty Years of Serial Thrills. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1983, p. 20 (Pathé: 10 episode "Leatherstocking"); p. 56 (Mascot Studio: 12 episode "Last of the Mohicans").
- 80. Klisz, Anjanelle M. The Video Source
Book, 2 Vols., 16 edition, 1995, Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1994, p. 709
(1978: "The Deerslayer,"); p. 1583 (1920: "Last of the Mohicans"), (1932: "Last of the Mohicans"), (1936: "Last of the Mohicans"), (1985: "Last of the
Mohicans"), (1992 animated: "Last of the Mohicans"), (1992: "Last of the
Mohicans"), (1947: "Last of the Redmen"); p. 2165 (1941: "The Pioneers")
- 81. Lahue, Kalton C. Continued Next Week A History of
the Moving Picture Serial. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964,
- 82. Langman, Larry. Writers on the American Screen A
Guide to Film Adaptations of American and Foreign Literary Works. New
York: Garland Publishing, 1986, p. 46.
- 83. Langman,
Larry and Borg, Ed. Encyclopedia of American War Films. New York:
Garland Publishing, 1989, pp. 150-151, 329-331, 425, 545.
- 84. Langman,
Larry and Ebner, David. Encyclopedia of American Spy Films. New
York: Garland Publishing, 1990, pp. 347-348, 435.
- 85. Lauritzen,
Einar and Lundquist, Gunnar. American Film-Index 1916-1920, 2 Vols.
Stockholm, Sweden: University of Stockholm, 1976, 1984, Vol. 2, p. 261.
Lee, Robert E. From West to East Studies in the Literature of the American
West. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1966, p. 59.
Lentz III, Harris M. Western and Frontier Film and Television Credits
1903-1995. Vol. 2. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1966, pp.
1229, 1230,1630, 1631.
- 88. Leyda, Jay, ed. Voices of Film
Experience 1894 to the Present. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1977, pp.
50-51. [same 1965, 1966 interview with Clarence Brown as in
- 89. Limbacher, James L. Feature Films A Directory of
Feature Films on 16mm and Videotape Available for Rental, Sale, and Lease.
New York: R. R. Bowker, 1985, p. 124 (1923, 1957, 1979 "Deerslayer"); p. 286
(1920, 1979 "Last of the Mohicans"); p. 394 (1954 "Pathfinder"); p. 403 (1941 "Pioneers); p. 409 (1948 "Prairie").
- 90. Magill,
Frank Northern., ed. Magill's Survey of Cinema Silent Films, 3 Vols.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, 1922, Vol. 2, pp. 650-653. [Tourneur's
1920 "Last of the Mohicans" has been preserved at the International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY]
- 91. Maltin,
Leonard. Leonard Maltin's 1999 Movie & Video Guide. New York: A
Plume Book, a division of Penguin Putnam, 1998 pp. 322, 757, 1042.
Mann, Michael Kenneth. Screenplay, 117 leaves. [adapted by Michael
Mann and Christopher Crowe] "Last of the Mohicans, "based on the novel by James Fenimore Cooper and the 1936 screenplay by Philip Dunne," 2nd draft: July 31, 1990, includes revised leaves dated November 29, 1990 through June 11, 1991; released by 20th Century Fox, 1992. [The film won an Oscar at the 65th annual Academy Award Ceremony for "Best Sound," March 29, 1992]
- 93. Marill,
Alvin H. Movies Made for Television The Telefeature and The Mini-Series
1964-1986. New York: Baseline, 1987.
- 94. Martin,
Len D. The Columbia Checklist. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1991, pp.
- 95. Merlock, Raymond J. "From Flintlock to
Forty-five: James Fenimore Cooper and the Popular Western Tradition in
Fiction and Film," Ohio University, 1981. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 42, 08, 3602A. [the building blocks of the Western are all
found in The Leatherstocking Tales]
- 96. Theater
Arts Library University of California Los Angeles. Motion Pictures: A
Catalog of Books, Periodicals, Screenplays, Television Scripts and Production Stills. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1976, p. 561 (1957 "The Deerslayer:" stills, color proofs/proofsheets); p. 634 (1936 "The Last of the Mohicans:" study guide).
- 97. Munden, Kenneth W., ed. The American Film
Institute Catalogue: Feature Films 1911-1920. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1971,
p. 503 ("Last of the Mohicans); pp. 880-881 ("The Spy").
, ed. The American Film Institute Catalogue: Feature Films
1921-1930. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1971, p. 176 ("The Deerslayer").
- 99. Nachbar, Jack, ed. Focus on the Western. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, 1974, pp. 10, 12-13, 21, 58, 62, 66.
- 100. Nachbar, John G. Western Films: An Annotated Critical Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1975, pp. xii, 96.
Return to Table of Contents
- 101. Nachbar, Jack, Donath, Jackie R. and Foran, Chris. Western Films 2 An Annotated Critical Bibliography from 1947 to 1987. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988, pp. 224, 242, 252, 264.
- 102. Nash, Jay
Robert and Ross, Stanley Ralph. The Motion Picture Guide, 10 Vols.
Chicago: Cinebooks, 1986, Vol. II, p. 613 ("Deerslayer"); Vol. V, p. 1615
("Last of the Mohicans" and "Last of the Redmen"); Vol. VI, p. 2355-6 ("The
Pathfinder"), p. 2404 ("The Pioneers"), p. 2444("The Pathfinder").
- 103. Niver, Kemp R. Motion Pictures from the Library of Congress Paper Print Collection 1894-1912. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967, p. 198. [ 372 feet, 16 mm: 1909 "Leatherstocking"]
_____________. Early Motion Pictures The Paper Print Collection in the
Library of Congress. Washington, D. C.: Library of congress, 1985, p.
- 105. Parish, James Rolbert and Leonard, William T.
Hollywood Players The Thirties. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1976, pp. 54, 113,142, 143. [full page still of Randolph Scott and Binnie Barnes in 1936 "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 106. Parish, James Robert and Pitts, Michael
R. Film Directors: A Guide to Their American Films. Metuchen, NJ:
The Scarecrow Press, 1974.
. The Great Western Pictures. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1976,
pp.180-183. ["Still on the production charts is a new version of "Last of
the Mohicans" to be produced in Europe and starring that box-office champ,
Charles Bronson," A still of Barbara Bedford, Albert Roscoe, Harry
Lorraine and Lillian Hall in Tourneur's 1920 film "The Last of the Mohicans" p. 181]
. The Great Western Pictures II. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press,
1988, pp. 90-92, 185. [still of Lex Barker and Rita Moreno in the 1957 film
"Deerslayer " p. 91; still of Steve Forrest and Don Shanks in the 1977 film "The Last of the Mohicans" p. 186]
Parkinson, Michael and Jeavons, Clyde. A Pictorial History of
Westerns. New York: Hamlyn, 1972, p.130, 195.
- 110. Parks, Reuben W. "The Process of Interpretation: a Study of the Cinematic Adaptions of James Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans," University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1993. [Thesis (Honors Baccalaureate Degree)]
- 111. Peyton, Robert L. "Western Justice: The Politics
of Fenimore Cooper, Owen Wister and the Western Movies," University of
California, Berkely, 1980. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42,
- 112. Pitts, Michael R. Western Movies A TV and Video
Guide to 4200 Genre Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1986,
p. 101 ("Deerslayer"), p. 217-218 ("The Last of the Mohicans" and "The Last of the Redmen"), p. 304 ("The Pathfinder" and "The Pathfinder and the
- 113. Pratt, George C. Spellbound in Darkness A
History of the Silent Film, Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1973, pp. 280-281. [1921 "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 114. Pye,
Douglas. "Genre and Movies," Movie, 20 (Spring 1975), pp. 29-43 also in
Grant, Barry K., ed. Film Genre: Theory and Criticism. Metuchen, NJ:
The Scarecrow Press, 1977, pp. 195-211. [traces the development of the
Western genre from Cooper and the dime novel]
- 115. Rainey,
Buck. Saddle Aces of the Cinema. San Diego, CA: Barnes, 1980, p.
139. [1932: "Last of the Mohicans"]
- 116. Robinson,
David. Hollywood in the Twenties. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1968, pp.
- 117. Ross, Harris. Film as Literature, Literature as
Film. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987, p. 130.
Rutherford, Paul. When Television Was Young: Primetime Canada 1952-1967.
Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1990, p. 376.
- 119. Sarf,
Wayne Michael. God Bless You, Buffalo Bill A Layman's Guide to History and
the Western Film. East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Presses and
Cornwall Books, 1983, p. 192, n. 15, 201.
- 120. Schutz,
Wayne. The Motion Picture Serial. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press,
1992. [Pathé Exchange: "Leatherstocking," pp. 15, 33; Mascot Pictures:
"Last of the Mohicans," pp. 58, 94]
- 121. Scott, Kenneth W. "Hawk-eye in Hollywood: A
James Fenimore Cooper Hero Still Awaits a Truly Appreciative Producer," Films in Review, New York: National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, Vol. 9, 10, 1958, pp. 575-579.
- 122. Sherman, Robert G. Quiet on the Set! Motion
Picture History at the Iverson Movie Location Ranch. Chatsworth, CA:
Sherway Publishing, 1984, p. 32.
Sklar, Robert. Film an International History of the Medium. New
York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993, p. 103. [two stills from 1920 LOM: top one same as Horack, p. 13; bottom still: silhouette of Indian standing on rock]
Slide, Anthony. Aspects of American Film History Prior to 1920.
Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1978, p. 71. [Thanhouser's 1911 "The
Last of the Mohicans"]
Return to Table of Contents
. The Big V A History of the Vitagraph Company. Metuchen, NJ:
The Scarecrow Press, 1976, p. 173.
, ed. Selected Film Criticism, 7 Vols. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow
Press, 1982, Vol. I, p. 59, Vol. II, p. 157.
- 127. Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press,
- 128. Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Land: The American
West as Symbol and Myth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950,
New York: Vintage Books, 1957, passim.
Sonnichsen, Charles Leland. From Hopalong to Hud Thoughts on Western
Fiction. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1978, pp.
- 130. Stewart, John, compiler. Filmarama The
Formidable Years, 1893-1919. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1975, Vol.
I, pp. 215, 300, 334, 356, 374.
. Ibid, 1977, Vol. II, pp. 655, 656.
- 132. Sultanik, Aaron. Film a Modern Art. New York: Cornwall Books, 1986, p. 98-99.
- 133. Swartz,
Jon D. and Reinehr, Robert C. Handbook of Old-Time Radio A Comprehensive
Guide to Golden Age Radio Listening and Collecting. Metuchen, NJ: The
Scarecrow Press, 1993, p. 412.
- 134. Talbot,
Daniel, ed. Film: An Anthology. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press, 1967, pp. 169, 299.
- 135. Terrace, Vincent. Encyclopedia of
Television Series, Pilots and Specials, 1937-1973 . New York: Zoetrope,
1985, Vol. I.
- 136. Thomas, Tony. The Great Adventure Films.
Secaucus. NJ: Citadel Press, 1976.
- 137. Tuska,
Jon. "The Vanishing Legion A Mascot Serial in Twelve Chapters," Views &
Reviews, Vol. 3, 4 (1972), pp. 22-29. [lists credits; cast, and detailed
description of each chapter]
. The Vanishing Legion: A History of Mascot Pictures 1927-1935.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1982, pp. 64, 73-82, 104, 181, 182, 195.
, The American West in Film: Critical Approaches to the Western.
Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1985, pp. 9, 56, 201, 241-243, 257.
Vahimagi, Tise, compiler. British Television: An Illustrated Guide, 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 65, 197.
- 141. Van
Doren, Mark. The Private Reader Selected Articles & Reviews. New
York: Henry Holt, 1942, p. 340.
- 142. Variety
Film Reviews: 1907-1980, 16 Vols. New York: Garland Press, 1983.
Variety's Complete Home Video Directory 1989. New York: R. R. Bowker,
1989, p. 170 ("The Deerslayer"), p. 367 ("The Last of the Mohicans").
Wagenknecht, Edward. The Movies in the Age of Innocence. Norman, OK:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1962, p. 45 ("Deerslayer"), p. 213 ("The Last of the Mohicans").
- 145. Wakeman, John. World Film Directors
1890-1945. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1987, pp. 64, 1238.
- 146. Walker,
Jeffrey, "Deconstructing and American Myth: Hollywood and the Last of the
Mohicans," Film & History Vol. 23, 1&4 (February 1, 1993), pp.
- 147. Walker, John, ed. Halliwell's Film & Video
Guide, Rev. NY: Harper Perennial, 1999.
- 148. Walls,
Howard Lamarr. Motion Pictures, 1894-1912 Identified from the Records of
the United States Copyright Office. Washington, DC: Library of Congress
Copyright Office, 1953.
Weaver, John T. Twenty Years of Silents 1908-1928. Metuchen, NJ: The
Scarecrow Press, 1971, pp. 300, 352, 437, 476, 493. [lists: the
players, their films, and their vital statistics; directors and producers, their credits, and their vital statistics; silent film studio corporations and distributors]
- 150. Weaver, J. V. A. "Fenimore Cooper, Comic," The
Bookman, 59 (March, 1924), pp. 13-15. [Last of Mohicans is a
burlesque: "Such are the materials from which will evidently be made, and
soon, we trust, one of the slapstick masterpieces of the silver screen.
Let us hope for an all star cast. Let us suggest Louise Fazenda and Mabel
Normand for Cora and Alice; Harold Lloyd for Magua; Bull Montana for
Chingachgook; Charlie Chaplin for Munro; Buster Keaton for Uncas; and Ben Turpin for Hawkeye. Only so thoroughly capable a company can do justice to this novel's antic possibilities."]
- 151. Weiss, Ken and Goodgold, Ed. To Be Continued.... New York: Crown
Publishers, 1972, p. 335. ["A complete list of sound serials arranged
alphabetically by year" with studio]
- 152. Welch,
Jeffery Egan. Literature and Film An Annotated Bibliography, 1909 -
1977. New York: Garland, 1981, pp. 57, 171.
- 153. Wheaton,
Christopher D. and Jewell, Richard B., compilers. Primary Cinema
Resources: An Index to Screenplays, Interviews and Special Collections at the University of Southern California. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1975, p. 30
(1957 "The Deerslayer"), p. 70 (1936 "Last of the Mohicans").
Wood, Robin. Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1986, pp. 278, 280, 293. [draws parallels between "The
Deerslayer" and "The Deerhunter"]
- 155. Wood,
Ruth Kedzie. "Leatherstocking Trail," The Bookman, XLI, 5 (July, 1915),
pp. 513-521. [pictures of "The Ark" and of "Tom Hutter's Castle"
constructed on Otsego Lake by a cinematograph company for the presentation of "The Deerslayer."]
- 156. Woods, Frank, "A Mohawk's Way," "Reviews of Licensed
Films," New York Dramatic Mirror, Vol. LXIV, No. 1657 (September 21, 1910), p. 31.
Return to Table of Contents