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Cooper on Film

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Edward Harris

(Central Missouri State University)

(Originally issued on disk as James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers -- Electronic Series No. 2)

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Table of Contents

I - The Evolvement of Cooper's
Characters, Plots, and Themes
in the Western Film

II - Chronological List of
Films with their Production Credits

(59 entries)

III - Film Credits, Synopses
and Annotated Reviews

The Last of the Mohicans (24 films)
The Deerslayer (11 films)
The Pathfinder (5 films)
The Prairie (1 film)
The Pioneers (1 film)
The Spy (1 film)

with special attention to
1920 The Last of the Mohicans (25 entries)
1936 The Last of the Mohicans (37 entries)
1992 The Last of the Mohicans (100 entries)
1911/1913 The Deerslayer (13 entries)

IV - Audiovisual Media
The Deerslayer (9 items)
Leatherstocking Tales (8 items)
The Last of the Mohicans (52 items)
The Last of the Redmen (2 items)
The Spy (1 item)

V - Selected bibliography
(156 entries)

The Evolvement of Cooper's Characters, Plots, and Themes in the Western Film and Audiovisuals with Credits and Annotated Reviews

Among the art forms that have been classified as native to the United States are jazz, detective stories, and the musical comedy.To this register must be added Cooper's creation: The Western novel and its modern media manifestation -- The Western film.America's first professional author, James Fenimore Cooper, probably never considered that he had created an art form.Michael Butler [p. 53] stated that "Leatherstocking has traditionally been treated as the first fully developed American hero, the type prefiguring later anti--types like the mountain man, cowboy, gangster, soldier of fortune, expatriate writer, private eye." Cawelti [1990, p. 86] claimed, "Whatever Cooper's shortcomings as a realist and a stylist, his creation of the ambiguous American epic of the frontier and its deeply divided hero was one of the most important mythical creations in the history of American culture." Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales were "... the first significant fiction of the West and a formative influence on the tradition of Western fiction throughout the nineteenth century." [Pye, p. 200]

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Included in the etiological foundation of The Western are Homeric tales and the King Arthur legends.According to Richard Slotkin many of the mythical patterns in the Western were present in the Captivity and Indian War Literature from the founding of European settlements in America.The dime novels of the latter part of the 1800's and the exceeding popular live Wild West Shows such as Buffalo Bill's, Pawnee Bill's, and the Miller Brother's 101 Ranch recreated the heroes and the villains of the West on paper and in pasture. In a chapter entitled "The Western Hero in the Dime Novel," Henry Nash Smith indicated Cooper's influence on The Western novel: "Of seventy-nine dime novels selected as a sample of those dealing with the West between 1860 and 1893, forty contain one or more hunters or trappers whose age, costume, weapons, and general functions entitle them to be considered lineal descendants of the great original." [Smith, p. 95] The western frontier was very much a part of the American experience until the early 1900's. William Everson, in his chapter on The Western, stated: "Prior to 1912, the literary influence was James Fenimore Cooper ... The "Noble Indian" preceded the cowboy as the first western screen hero..." [Everson, p. 240]. Assorted writers such as Smith, Folsom, and Cawelti have attributed the invention of the "Western" to James Fenimore Cooper. Richard Cawelti (1976) declares "His (Cooper's) great creation, Nathaniel Bumppo, the Leatherstocking, became the prototype for the western hero and thus the progenitor of countless stories, novels, films, and television programs that use the formula Cooper first articulated." Although the frontier tales of James Fenimore Cooper were not "Westerns" as the word connotes today, Cooper's "Easterns" were staged on the western frontier of the time, and they became the prototype for The Western as the frontier moved toward the setting sun. His Leatherstocking Tales were certainly instrumental in creating the genre. "Cooper's great invention is ... the Western.Without Cooper, there is no Shane, no The Virginian, no My Darling Clementine, no The Searchers, no Unforgiven." [Harkness, 1992] Cooper's frontier writings are an integral component of the foundation of "The Western" as an art form.

While many scholars champion the Deerslayer, Butler purposes another Cooper character for the genesis of the hero of the B movie. "In the century following publication of the first of the Leatherstocking Tales, therefore, the Natty Bumppo figure steadily degenerated. By the middle of this century he had become almost exclusively a comic figure. In the B film, his anti-social behavior was trivialized into senile grumblings..." "The balanced situation of Oliver Edwards became the essential characteristic of one kind of Western hero." "B movie cowboys were true descendants of Oliver Edwards. Like him they possessed the ability to slide between society and wilderness excelling in each sphere." "He evades the tragic consequences of Natty Bumppo's life ..." who in contrast is trapped on one level. He excels in each sphere, exploits each completely, but commits himself to neither." "Cooper reaffirmed this fundamental difference between types of men in The Last of the Mohicans." As scholars of The Western provide us with additional insights to its development, we can affirm a Cooperian hand in the creation of The Western.

Whether manifested in the form of novels or of films, Cooper's concept of the hero may be experienced as the unifying thread throughout the Western.Both the hero's first appearance in the film and his last can often be attributed to Cooper. The dramatic appearance of Leatherstocking in the first chapter of The Prairie is often duplicated in the Western film usually with the hero entering the scene of strife against a dramatic backdrop [John Wayne in "Stagecoach;" Alan Ladd's entrance in "Shane;" Clint Eastwood's appearing out of the smoke in "A Fistful of Dollars"]. In the end of the film the Western hero is usually portrayed departing for the next frontier as did Leatherstocking. The protagonist in the Western novel or film, like Cooper's character, is: a strong honorable man; a patriot who loves nature and the freedom of the broad expanse of the land; reluctant to use force but efficient as a fast draw killer who respects the villain as a fighting man; a quiet western knight who is the protector of virtuous women; a romantic figure who, following the resolution of the strife, leaves with his sidekick or rides off alone nostalgically into the sunset on his horse looking for another he left behind.

Jenni Calder explains that loneliness is a persistent theme in the saga of the old frontier. "Fenimore Cooper captured it first in Hawkeye, who is both proud and melancholy in his solitariness. It is not essentially different in the Lone Ranger or any other of Hollywood's mighty heroes ex machina." [Calder, p. 3]. Perhaps because of his life style a particular characteristic of the hero is usually a strong attachment to an animal. Cooper led the way with Natty's dog Hector. Although there have been notable canine friends in Western films, the horse usually shared or more often won out for this role. The frontiersman moved silently and swiftly on foot through the eastern forest. Throughout the wide western wilderness the horse enabled the hero to move freely.

The "initiation into manhood" motif found in The Deerslayer is also often the main character's ordeal in the Western. A conflict is created by the adversary, and after parrying most of this evil by inner control, the hero must resort to violence to resolve the conflict. "This narrative pattern -- a protagonist placed in a situation where some form of violence or criminality becomes a moral necessity -- is one of the basic archetypes of American literature. It is certainly an important element in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Saga." [Cawelti 1975, p. 529] This conflict is resolved with another Cooper first: the fast draw. "To cock and poise his rifle were the acts of a single motion; then, aiming almost without sighting he fired..." [The Deerslayer, p. 121]. Cooper's description has been the basis for many a filmed gunfight.

The successful completion of the hero's journey is also often accompanied by a change of name for the character as Cooper first penned for Natty Bumppo. Examples are: William F. Cody became Buffalo Bill; James Butler Hickok became Wild Bill; William Ronney became Billy the Kid; or Jim Lacy who became just "Nevada." Although a name like Natty Bumppo held little magic, "Hawkeye" caught on like a prairie fire. The name of Cooper's hero was used in various forms by writers of the dime novels. Warren St. John's Single Eye a Story of King Phillip's War; Charles Dunning Clark's Eagle Eye; or, Ralph Warren and his Red Friend. A Story of the Fall of Oswego; Lewis J. Swift's Keen-Eye; Max Martine's Sharp-Eye a Beadle and Adams book of 1873 [Henry M. Avery, who wrote the book, had been captured and adopted by the Sioux and had married a Chief's daughter]; Bruin Adams' Glass Eye, The Great Shot of the West; and even Buffalo Bill Cody, who wrote Deadly-Eye, the Unknown Scout in 1875, all appropriated the magic of Cooper's character's name, with its many connotations of the hero, and rode to popularity.

In addition to the Hero, many other character types seen in Western films can be traced to characters in Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales and especially to those in The Last of the Mohicans.

A relevant character in later Westerns is the hero's buddy, friend, companion, and comrade i.e. Chingachgook who played these roles in The Leatherstocking Tales. He epitomizes male bonding which is an integral part of the Western's male-dominated world. He augments the hero by possessing useful talents that the hero does not. He is often used as a contrast to the hero's philosophy of life; and although both possess similar admirable qualities, they are attracted to and respect each other's differences. Neither can change, but both have their appointments on the frontier. Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday in the many films about their lives; Tom Dunston and Matthew Garth of "Red River;" Shane and Joe Starrett of "Shane;" Guthrie McCabe and Jim Gary of "Two Road Together;" "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid;" and Ransom Stoddard and Tom Doniphon of "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance" are some examples of this role. The character has been replicated in the Red Rider and the Little Beaver Republic film series [and comic strip]; Tom Jeffords and Cochise in "Broken Arrow" [both the film and TV series]; and portrayed again in the Lone Ranger and Tonto films and serials.

Cooper received a great deal of criticism about the characterization of the women in his novels, but Cooper provided two enduring role models for the Western: Cora and Alice Munro. Cora represented the dark and passionate black haired beauty found in Western films. Often as the good friend of the hero she was socially "bad" enough to prevent any long term relationship. She would and did give her life for the hero many times. Freeing the hero by having the good bad women die was also Cooper's denouement. The pure frail lady Alice was the blond, usually from back East, that men married to maintain civilization as it was known on the frontier. Cooper's archetypes became the Dance Hall Girl and the Eastern School Marm.

Notable examples of Cooper's female characters in Western films may be seen in "High Noon:" the raven-haired Mexican Helen Ramirez played by Katy Jurado and the blond Quaker Amy Kane played by Grace Kelly."My Darling Clementine" features Doc Holiday's dark haired Apache Chihuahua (Linda Darnell) and blond Clementine Carter (Cathy Downs) who has come to the West to save the once gifted doctor. Other examples are good bad girl Corinne Calvert ("Powder River"), Carolyn Jones ("Heaven with a Gun"), and Anne Baxter in the 1960 version of "Cimarron." Although both female character's hair color was sometimes changed in later films, Cooper set the stage for the "good good girl" as well as for the "good bad girl." The latter sometimes developed into a major character. Examples are: Amanda Blake as Miss Kitty ("Gunsmoke"), Marlene Dietrich as Frenchie ("Destry Rides Again"), and Marilyn Monroe as the blonde dance hall girl in "The Misfits".

Cooper used the motif of miscegenation in several of his frontier novels: The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, The Prairie, and The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish. Although the theme proved fascinating and fruitful for the story writer, film scenarists also chose not to permit both lovers to live. "The Squaw Man" (1913), "The Vanishing American" (1925), "Cimarron," (1931 & 1960), and "Jeremiah Johnson" (1972) are good examples of using a violent ending to the mixed couple's relationship. Western novelist and Western film makers thus followed Cooper's disapproval of mixed marriages and the potential progeny who belong to neither race.

The Western villain must possess both positive traits and evil qualities. He must be able to fight nearly as well as the hero. He is often the "brains" behind the conflict. Cooper provided Westerns with a model often cloned: Magua. The villain must dominate the heroine to prove his superiority and/or to gain revenge. In Western films the villain is often a treacherous Indian although on occasion he is a white man with the recognizable characteristics. Some examples are: Lt. Muir in The Pathfinder; Chester Bent in "Destry Rides Again," Trampas in "The Virginian;" and Scar in "The Searchers."

The Western film hero often has a humorous "sidekick" character such as Cooper's David Gamut (Last of the Mohicans); Capt. Charles Cap (The Pathfinder); Ben Pump (The Pioneers); or Dr. Obed Battius (The Prairie). While Cooper may have used these characters to deprecate characteristics he found offensive, Western talkies of the 1930's most likely incorporated Gabby Hayes/Smiley Burnette characters for box office appeal and monetary gain. Andy Devine ("Stagecoach"); Victor McLaglen in John Ford's "Fort Apache," "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon," and "Rio Grande;" and Walter Brennan ("Red River") are examples of later films which used the "sidekick" character. Carried into TV we see Leo Carrillo as Pancho in "The Cisco Kid," Pat Buttram in "The Gene Autry Show," and Andy Devine as Jingles in "Wild Bill Hicock," Ernest Borgnine as "Dutch" in "The Wild Bunch," and Will Geer as "Griz" in "Jeremiah Johnson." Even Bob Dylan in "Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid," and the bear in John Huston's "The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean" qualify for "sidekick" characters. Hollywood's B-Westerns (1930-1950) hold the distinction of using Cooper's comic relief character most frequently although the role continues to appear in films into this decade.

"In the first of the Leatherstocking Tales, The Pioneers (1823), Cooper turned to popular literary types for his hero and helper. Oliver Edwards and Natty Bumppo are conventional characters of romantic fiction -- American versions of an aristocratic hero and his faithful servant. Cooper used similar characters in two more novels in the series: The Last of the Mohicans (1826) and The Prairie (1827). In each, he matched the humble Bumppo with a younger and "nobler" man. In part because of Cooper's considerable prestige and circulation, the partnership of young hero and older helper remained a constant one in frontier fiction." [Butler, pp. 54-55] "The Dude," in Hollywood parlance, is a young inexperienced stock figure who is usually saved by his mentor's savvy of the frontier. Memorable Dudes penned by Cooper are Duncan Heyward (Last of the Mohicans; Jasper Western (The Pathfinder); Oliver Edwards (The Pioneers); and Duncan Uncas Middleton (The Prairie). In The Western, the Dude is often a rash, young, military officer or a youthful, noble-minded, courageous character who is unacquainted with the dangers of the frontier and whose actions must be tempered. Butler [p. 55] stated that "In this century, young hero paired with older helper was perhaps the most common relationship of the B Western film." As Natty Bumppo ages he becomes a counselor as well as a teacher to the novice. The character of the mentor may be seen in Ben Cartwright and Hopalong Cassidy types. "Throughout the thirties, forties, and early fifties, veteran comedians and character actors like George Hayes, Al St. John, Andy Clyde, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Lee White played Natty Bumppo to the Oliver Edwards of Roy Rogers, Buster Crabbe, William Boyd, John Mack Brown, Eddie Dean, Jimmy Wakely. Until recently at least one variation of the pattern survived in the friendship of Marshal Dillon and Festus Hagen." [Butler, p. 55]

Another Western character type can be found in The Prairie: Ishmael Bush and his clan. A primitive group who rely only on themselves, the clan is above the law; has no regard for the land, morality, nor people's property; and is usually portrayed as barbaric, lecherous, and often deranged. Examples of "the clan" may be seen in "Wagonmaster" (the Clegg family); "Man of the West" (Dock Tobin and his boys); "Ride the High Country" (the Hammond Brothers) and in other Westerns.

Justice often comes at the end of a rope in Western films as Cooper depicted it with Abiram White's death in the last novel of Leatherstocking's life. Lynching was an acceptable way of dispensing justice in the Western with its lack of civilized law. Cooper's positive view of lynching (in a situation devoid of law) can be seen in "The Virginian" and other early movies. This endorsement did not change until "The Ox-Bow Incident" was filmed in 1943.

A stock plot formula found in some Western novels, but especially in the Western movie, is also found first in Cooper's novels. The woman motivates the man to be the hero and to protect her, her family, or her property. She has no mother and travels or lives with her father on the frontier. This aging father is unable to protect his daughter: enter the hero. The capture-escape-pursuit-capture-escape formula has also been a very successful plotline [John Ford films "The Searchers" and "Two Rode Together" deal with reclaiming Comanche hostages]. The filmmakers usually followed Cooper's picture of the noble Indian whose lands have been appropriated by the white man or antithetically they portrayed the Indian as the blood thirsty savage.

If Western films [and novels] seem familiar, there is a good chance that the viewer has experienced the plot before. Once a writer finds a plot formula that works, it is usually reproduced with some minor changes. Cooper used a successful formula when he opened The Pathfinder with a similar scene that The Last of the Mohicans began. Cooper's use of formulae [contrary killings, Indian's thirst for blood (usually white), friendships between Indians and whites, deaths and marriages] in the Leatherstocking Tales laid the formula foundation for Western film writers who ground out a glut of films and novels that resembled each other. Cooper's formulae served B-Western films well from the 1920's until the early 1950's.

Although a powerful saving force has long been an author's deus ex machina, Cooper in chapter thirty of The Deerslayer popularized the last minute military rescue. "They came upon the charge, the scarlet of the king's livery shining among the bright green foliage of the forest." [p. 521] The rescue scene has been replicated in a plethora of Western novels with the U. S. Cavalry charge and has been stock footage in many Western films.

The Pioneers is important to the Western genre because in it may be found the basic plots used in writing the Western. The novel is also crucial to understand Western writing because Cooper deals with the ownership of the land which was central in so many Western books and films.

All of this action takes place, as Cooper so aptly described in his novels, on the edge of civilization: the frontier with its perils and exciting adventure awaiting in the next chapter or on the next reel of film. The Western should be with us for many years to come because the social problems that Cooper explored in his oeuvre still face each new generation. Cooper's Western building blocks: plots, characters, themes, and iconography are already being explored in the films and TV serials of our final frontier: space.

Despite the fact that Cooper furnished the Western film enduring characters, plots, themes and motifs, Cooper has not fared well at the movies. Jeffery Walker stated: "Cooper has been generally misinterpreted and misrepresented by filmmakers. Almost all of the film adaptations have concentrated on his plots, always to the novel's detriment …" [p. 105] Adapters of his novels for the stage have done exceptionally well compared to the screenplay writers (scenarists), producers, and directors of films based on his novels [Harris]. Starting in 1909 with a silent film, Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales have spanned nine decades of cinematography. Unfortunately most of the attempts to put Cooper's stories on film have been assessed as weak to mediocre. Lee [p. 59] stated, "Cooper's West is as second-rate as the thousands of Westerns modeled on it." Beginning with D. W. (David Wark) Griffith and ending with the last attempt in 1992 by Michael Mann, Cooper's books have suffered Hollywood's penchant for remolding a good story into a Hollywood plot.

As America's first professional writer, Cooper holds the distinction of being the first American writer to have a play produced based on his novel. [Harris] Cooper's The Spy, published December 22, 1821, was adapted for the stage and produced March 1, 1822. The Leatherstocking Tales have been the source of most of the films made from Cooper's books, and The Last of the Mohicans has been the book most often adapted to the screen. The first public showing of a motion picture was at the Holland Brother's Kinetoscope Parlor in New York City on April 14, 1894. Perusing the list of silent movies from 1893 to 1929/30 would indicate that one of D. W. Griffith's first silent films for Biograph Studios was "Leather Stocking" in 1909. Cooper thus also holds the distinction of being the first American author to have his novel adapted for film.

Occasionally films were made using a few of Cooper's characters. One could conclude that sometimes they had been thrown in at the last moment to make a mediocre film respectable and/or perhaps a larger financial success. Good examples of this practice are: "The Pioneers," Monogram, 1941 which had no resemblance to any of Cooper's plot; and the script of "The Last of the Redmen," Columbia Pictures, 1947 which took so many liberties with The Last of the Mohicans that it was difficult to recognize Cooper's story. "The Iroquois Trail," United Artists, 1950, directed by Phil Karlson portrayed the adventures of George Montgomery as Hawkeye and Monte Blue as Sagamore (Chingachgook), his faithful Indian guide, as they deal with attacks by hostile Indians during the French and Indian War. Although a few characters are reminiscent of Cooper's: a Huron renegade; a beautiful commander's daughter; and her officer admirer; there is no other connection with Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. The 1957 Canadian TV series, "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans," only alluded to the novel by paralleling some incidents in the first of the thirty-nine episodes, i.e.: bad Indian leads party astray and lusts after the Colonel's daughter.

Cooper was a hallmark against which other film writers were judged. A 1910 New York Dramatic Mirror review by Frank Woods of D. W. Griffith's "A Mohawk's Way" stated, "It is the noble red man of James Fenimore Cooper that we see in this film -- the Indian of romance who, as some people claim, never existed, but who is nevertheless the ideal type for story telling." [The film was not an adaptation of a Cooper book.] Wednesday, August 18, 1999 The 1928 silent film "Spoilers of the West" directed by W. S. Van Dyke for MGM has as its plot trappers and squatters on Indian land causing trouble with the Indians of Red Cloud (Chief Big Tree). The hero (Tim McCoy) and some Indian police stop a war. A Variety critic ["Rush"] (March 21, 1928) commented that, "McCoy undertakes the job supported by a handful of Indian police (a historical detail that isn't often played up in movies or fiction). He also noted that this film contained "spectacular Indian fighting stuff" and that the "melodrama is dealt with in terms of Fenimore Cooper instead of the Old Scout dime novel style."

Cooper's books were very popular in Europe and many were adapted to the European stage [Harris]. It was inevitable that European attempts would be made to put Cooper's books on film with the advent of that medium. Spaghetti Westerns" were low budget films usually made in Europe, with an nternational assortment of actors, directors, technicians, and scenery. "Sauerkraut Westerns" were similar low budget films but originated in Germany. These films tried to impersonate American B - Westerns, but were often rated "Z."

Movie serials started in the silent era and continued through their brief Golden Age: 1939 to 1942. Perhaps the classics were serialized to appease the PTA and the parent's complaints about violence. Many children read the same classics in school that their parents and teachers had read. The classic serials were both familiar to the children and assuaged parental opposition to film violence. British writer Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was the first classic adapted to the silent serial screen in 1922, and French author Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days followed in 1923. Universal filmed both serials. Pathé was the first to adapt Cooper in 1924. Cooper became the first American author to be added to the cliffhanger serialization format with ten chapters of "Leatherstocking." Mascot Pictures produced a twelve chapter sound serialization of The Last of the Mohicans in 1932. Thirty-nine episodes for Western radio programs were also produced in the 1930's from Cooper's books. The Deerslayer [13 chapters] and The Last of the Mohicans were both serialized on NBC. [Swartz and Reinehr p. 412]

Other than the early silent film "The Spy," which received excellent reviews, Hollywood has only drawn ineffectively upon Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. Writers, producers, and directors should also be aware of the potential for dramatic films from some of Cooper's untapped novels: a Revolutionary War novel with an accurately depicted battle scene, a frontier novel of kidnapping, love and death, a novel of survival locked in a frozen sea, and even a trial novel which might have some appeal today. Although Cooper was the first to develop the sea novel, Hollywood has neglected the vast number of Cooper's sea stories whose dramatic potential could rival Hollywood's rendition of "The Sea Wolf," "Moby Dick," "Mutiny on the Bounty," or The Hornblower series. Hollywood has not yet begun to exploit Cooper's potential on the wide wide screen. May we not have long to wait before more of Cooper's dramatic tales are adapted to film.

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF FILMS WITH THEIR PRODUCTION CREDITS

Dates for films may vary because various sources list films by copyright date, by preview date, by review date, or by the general release date in the United States and/or abroad. Titles may vary by different distributors and in different countries. Films may be retitled from the announced title on release or when released in different formats. A reel was a unit of measurement for early films. It was usually 1000 feet in length and ran for ten minutes. Sources are cited for single listings of a film.

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  1. 1907 "The Spy," Vitagraph, copyright: 7 March 1907. [Stewart, Vol. I, p. 374; Walls, p. 57]
  2. 1909 "Leather Stocking," Biograph Studios, silent, 996 feet, directed by D. W. Griffith; camera: G. W. (Billy) Bitzer and Arthur Marvin; filmed: August 24, 25, 26 and 27 at Cuddebackville, NY; release date: 27 September 1909, copyright: 29 September 1909. [derived a large part of its plot from The Last of the Mohicans; adapted by Griffith; photographed almost entirely outdoors with only a few scenes inside a stockade]
  3. 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel, silent. Pat Powers (Motion Picture Company) released the movie on August 1st. [filmed much of the plot, but allowed Cora Munro to live]
  4. 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," directed by Theodore Marston. [Barker, p. 28] with Frank Crane; William Russell; and Alphonse Ethier [Lentz, p. 1229]
  5. 1911 "The Spy," directed by Otis Turner with Hobart Bosworth [International Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 87]
  6. 1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel, silent; filmed at Lake George, NY. Edwin Thanhouser (Film Company) released the movie November 10th.
  7. 1911 "The Pathfinder," silent, directed by Laurence Trimble with Wallace Reid [Stewart, Vol. I, p. 215]
  8. 1911 "Leather Stocking Tales" silent, with Wallace Reid [Steward, Vol. I, p. 215]
  9. 1911 "The Deerslayer," two reels, silent, Vitagraph production starring Hal Reid with Florence Turner as Hetty.
  10. 1913 "The Deerslayer," two reels, 2000 feet, silent, directed by Hal Reid and Lawrence Trimble, Vitagraph production, May 7, 1913 [release of the 1911 film]; scenario by Larry Trimble.
  11. 1914 "The Spy," Universal, 4 reels, silent, directed by Otis Turner, screenwriter James Dayton.
  12. 1914 "The Last of the Mohicans." [Friar, p. 144]
  13. 1920 "The Last of the Mohicans," Associated Producers, six reels (5,720 ft.), silent, black and white with color tints; copyright: 16 November 1920; directed by Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown; screenplay: Robert A. Dillon; cinematographers: Philip R. Dubois, Charles E. Van Enger; shot in California on location at Big Bear Lake, Malibu, Lake Arrowhead, and Yosemite National Park; art director: Floyd Mueller.
  14. 1920 "Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking)," Luna-Film, 12 reels, silent, black and white, directed by Arthur Wellin, screenplay: Robert Heymann. filmed in the German forests of the Rhine valley with Hungarian actor Bela Lugosi as Uncas. [released in two parts: "Der Wildtoter (The Deerslayer)," and "Der Letzte der Mohikaner (The Last of the Mohicans)"]
  15. 1921 "The Deerslayer," 5 reels. [an American release of "Lederstrumpf"]
  16. 1922 "Last of the Mohicans," Associated Producers, silent, directed by Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown. [Parish, p. 182] [this may be a typo; probably the 1920 film]
  17. 1923 "The Deerslayer," Cameo Distributing, 60 minutes, black and white, directed by Arthur Wellin. [Pitts, p. 101]
  18. 1923 "The Deerslayer," Mingo Pictures, Cameo Distributing Co.; silent, black & white, 5 reels, 35 mm.; Educational-historical drama. ["No information about the precise nature of this film has been found." Munden, p. 176]; film also noted by Connelly, p. 339; this may have been the American release of the German "Der Wildtoter (The Deerslayer)"]
  19. 1924 "Leatherstocking," Pathé Exchange, 10 episode serial, directed by George B. Seitz; written by Robert Dillon; release date: 23 March 1924. [a conflation of material from "The Last of the Mohicans" and from "The Deerslayer"]
  20. 1926 "The Last of the Mohee-cans." [Chaplinesque comedy with spoof version of the novel/films] [Barker, p. 28]
  21. 1932 "The Last of the Mohicans," Mascot Studios, serial, sound, 12 chapters (Ch. One in 3 reels; Chs. 2-12 in 2 reels), 13 minutes each directed by B. Reeves Easton and Ford Beebe; produced by Nat Levine; supervising editor: Wyndham Gittens; screenplay: Colbert Clark, John (Jack) Francis Natteford, Ford Beebe, and Wyndham Gittens; photography: Ernest Miller and Jack Young; film editor: Ray Snyder; sound engineer: George Lowerre, released: May 17, 1932. [first sound version by Little Mascot Films proved expensive because of the problems of outdoor sound recording and Harry Carey's insistence on receving $10,000 for his part; most of the water battles and races were filmed at Sherwood Lake or on the Kern River, CA; negatives have been transferred by Screen Gems to acetate and are generally available for television distribution]
  22. 1936 "The Last of the Mohicans," United Artists, black and white, 10 reels, 91 minutes, sound. Directed by George B. Seitz; Associate Director: Wallace Fox; produced by Edward Small for Reliance Pictures; copyright by Reliance Productions, 18 August 1936; release date: 4 September 1936; screenplay: Philip Dunne, with adaptation by John L. Balderston, Paul Perez, and Daniel Moore; film editors: Jack Dennis and Harry Marker; music director: Roy Webb; art director: John Ducasse Schulze; research director: Edward P. Lambert; sound: John L. Cass; costume designer: Franc Smith; camera: Robert Planck; shot on the Upper-Iverson Ranch, CA.
  23. 1941 "The Pioneers," Monogram Pictures, sound, black and white, 58 minutes. Directed by Albert Herman; producer: Edward Finney; screenwriter: Charles Anderson; photography: Marcel A. Le Picard; editor: Fred Bain; original music by Frank Sanucci, copyright: 1941.
  24. 1943 "The Deerslayer," Republic Pictures, black and white, 67 minutes, producers: P. S. Harrison and E. B. Deer; directed by Lew Landers; assistant director: Eddie Stein; screenwriters: Harrison and Deer; adaptation: John W. Kraft; camera: Arthur Martinelli; editor: George McGuire; filmed at Lake Arrowhead, CA; copyright: 1943.
  25. 1947 "The Last of the Redmen," Columbia Pictures, color, 78 minutes, directed by George Sherman; produced by Sam Katzman; screenplay: Herbert Dalmas and George H. Plympton; camera (Vitacolor): Ray Fernstrom, Ira H. Morgan; editor: James Sweeney; music director: Misha Bakaleinkoff; art director: Paul Palmentola; released: August 1, 1947. [British title: "Last of the Redskins"]
  26. 1947 "The Prairie," Screen Guild, sound, black and white, 68 minutes, adapted and directed by Frank Wisbar. An Edward F. Finney production; screenplay: Arthur St. Claire; photography: James S. Brown, Jr.; editor: Douglas W. Bagler; music: Alexander Steinert; copyright: 1948 by Zenith Pictures.
  27. 1948 "The Return of the Mohicans," [1932 serial condensed into a feature-length film]
  28. 1949 "Last of the Redskins," Columbia. [original title "Last of the Mohicans," per Enser, p. 718. This most likely is the 1947 "Last of the Redmen" rather than LOM]
  29. 1950 "Leather Stocking Tales," United Artists, director: Phil Karlson. [also issued with the title "The Tomahawk Trail" per Enser, p. 719]
  30. 1952 "The Pathfinder," Columbia Pictures, technicolor, 78 minutes, directed by Sidney Salkow; produced by Sam Katzman; screenwriter: Robert E. Kent; camera: Henry Freulich; editor: Jerome Thoms; music: Mischa Bakalienkoff; art director: Paul Palmentola; set designer: Sidney Clifford; previewed: Dec. 9, 1952; copyright: 1953.
  31. 1957 "The Deerslayer," Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, Cinemascope, DeLuxe Color, 76 minutes; filmed at Bass Lake in the High Sierras; producer/director: Kurt Neumann; screenplay: Neumann and Carroll Young; music: Paul Sawtell and Bert Shefter; art designer: Theobold Holsopple; camera: Karl Struss; editor: Jodie Copelan. [released by Productions Unlimited, 1963]
  32. 1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans," Television Programs of America, Canadian Normandie Productions, 39 episode syndicated TV series, directed by Sam Newfield and Sidney Salkow; produced by Sigmund Neufeld; syndicated: April 1957 to Summer 1958; shot in the wilds of Toronto, Canada.
  33. 1962 International Television Corporation, distributed to TV stations four TV movies: "Along the Mohawk Trail," "The Red Man and the Renegades," "The Long Rifle and the Tomahawk," and "The Pathfinder and the Mohican" based on the 1957 series "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans" television series; John Hart played Hawkeye, Lon Chaney, Jr. played Chingachgook.
  34. 1963 A Mexican production company filmed "Last of the Mohicans." [Magill, Vol. 2, p. 650]
  35. 1964 "The Pathfinder and the Mohican," International TV Corporation (ITC), black and white, 90 minutes, telefeature, directed by Sam Newfield. [paste-up made from three segments of the cheap 1956-57 syndicated TV series: "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"]
  36. 1965 "Der Letzte Mohikaner [The Last Mohican]," International Germania Film/Cineproduzioni Associate, cinemascope, color, 89 minutes; directed by Harald Reinl; producer: Franz Thierry; script: Joachim Bartsch; camera: Ernst Kalinke and Francisco Marin. [alternate title: "The Last Tomahawk"]
  37. 1965 "Uncas, el fin de una raza" [Uncas, the End of One Race], Ital Caribe Cinematografica (Spain/Italy), 85 minutes, color, directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora.
  38. 1965 "L'Ultimo dei Mohicani" [The Last Mohican], 85 minutes, color, directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora.
  39. 1969 "Die Lederstrumpferzählungen (The Leatherstocking Tales)," mini TV series, color, language: French; directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit; writers: Pierre Gaspard-Huit, Jacques Rémy, and Walter Ulbrich; original music: George Grigoriu and Robert Mekllin; camera: André Zarra; costume design: Joseph Bogos; make-up: Rosalia Bartha and Nicole Félix; sound editor: Heiner Harss; production design: Joseph Bogos; 13 episodes.
  40. 1969 "Bas de cuir," produced by: Teledis (French), Buftea (Bucarest), ORTF (French); directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu, 13 episode TV series.
  41. 1969 "Ultimul Mohican," (Romania/France), directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu.
  42. 1969 "Vinatorul de cerbi [Blame the Stag/Deerslayer]," (Romania), directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergiu Nicolaescu.
  43. 1971 "Last of the Mohicans," BBC-TV Sunday children's serial, directed by David Maloney, produced by John McRae, written by Harry Green; eight 45 minute episodes, filmed at Glen Affric in the Scottish Highlands, no musical score. [made available for American TV in 13 episodes of 26 minutes each]
  44. 1972 "The Last of the Mohicans," WNET Masterpiece Theatre, directed by David Maloney, dramatized by Harry Green, producer: John McRae, serial produced by British Broadcasting Company, Alistair Cooke, host; eight episodes beginning 26 March 1972 and ending 14 May 1972.
  45. 1973 "The Pathfinder," Century Theatre Television Drama Series, directed by David Maloney, 5 episodes. A BBC adaptation of the classics, released in the United States by 20th Century-Fox; syndicated in 1973.
  46. 1977 "Last of the Mohicans," J. Arthur Rank Film Distribution. [video]. [Enser (1928-1986), p. 155]
  47. 1977 "Last of the Mohicans," Schick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 100 minutes, (cut 10 minutes when syndicated) [the Classics Illustrated (comic book) logo appeared at the opening and at the end] directed by James L. Conway; executive producer: Charles E. Sellier, Jr.; producer: Robert Stambler; teleplay: Stephen Lord; music: Bob Summers; art director: Charles Bennett; camera: Henning Schellerup; editors: Jim Webb and Steve Michael. [November 23, 1977]
  48. 1978 "The Deerslayer," motion picture, Classics Illustrated, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels, 87 minutes, sound/color, 16 mm.; produced by Bill Conford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer.
  49. 1979 "The Deerslayer," Schick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 78 minutes, directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay: S. S. Schweitzer; Executive producers: Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway; producer: Bill Conford; music: Andrew Belling and Bob Summers; art director: Scott Lindquist; camera: Paul Hipp; filmed on location in Utah; editor: Carl Kress. [most likely the 1978 film above – release date was 18 December 1978]
  50. 1979 "The Last of the Mohicans," Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 4 reels, 97 minutes, sound/color, 16 mm.
  51. 1979 "The Leatherstocking Tales," Metropolitan Pittsburgh Broadcasting, WQED, "Once Upon a Classic," PBS TV, mini-series, 3 parts, 2 episodes each, producer: Bob Walsh; directed by Nick Sgarro; written by John O'Toole,
  52. 1985 "Last of the Mohicans," Schick Sunn, 97minute, made-for-television film, directed by James L. Conway, rated R. [Klisz, p. 1583, probably the 1977 Schick Sunn TV film]
  53. 1987 The Last of the Mohicans," full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, release of the 1976 motion picture; adaptation: Lewis Draper; animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington; camera: Jan Cregan; voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, Frank Welker.
  54. 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," 20th Century Fox (USA); Morgan Creek International (France), 14 reels (10980 feet) 122 minutes, 35mm, sound, color, rated R, produced by Michael Mann and Hunt Lowry, and directed by Michael Mann. Premier August 11, 1992 in Paris [where Cooper lived from 1826-1833]; opened in U.S. September 25; general release: November 6; screenplay by M. Mann and Christopher Crowe also based on United Artists' 1936 version by Philip Dunne; executive producer: James G. Robinson, cinematographers (Delux color): Dante Spmotti, Doug Milsome; filmed in North Carolina; music: Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman; editors: Don Hoenig, Arthur Schmidt; production design: Wolf Kroeger; art designers: Richard Holland, Robert Guerra; set design: Karl Martin, Masako Masuda: set decoration: Jim Erickson, James V. Kent; sound (Dolby): Simon Kaye, Paul Massey, Doug Hemphill, Mark Smith, Chris Jenkins; stunt coordinator: Mickey Gilbert; copyright USA: 12 September 1992; copy 2 is the international release copy (no subtitles for Native American Languages): 22 September 1992.
  55. 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," Barr Films, 45 minutes, VHS. [animated]
  56. 1992 "Last of the Mohicans," St. Lauren, Canada, Madacy Music Group, 1992, two videocassettes (110min.), black and white, ½ in, VHS format, TV Classic Collection. [four episodes from the Canadian television series with John Hart and Lon Chaney: "The Truant," "False Face," "Winter Passage," and "The Reconing."
  57. 1992 "The Last of the Mohicans," Van Nuys, CA: Live Home Video, distributor: Laser Connection, Scott's Valley, CA, one videodisc (91 min.) extended play CLV utilizing CX noise reduction, black and white. [originally produced by Reliance Productions and released by United Artists in 1936]
  58. 1994 "Hawkeye," Syndicated serial of 22 (60 minute) episodes released in September 1994 for television.
  59. 1996 "The Pathfinder," Production Company: Leatherstocking Productions, Distributor: Hallmark Home Entertainment; directed by Donald Shebib; written by James Mitchell Miller and Thomas W. Lynch; producer: John Danylkiw; photography: Curtis Petersen, shot at Fort Erie, Ontario, Niagara Gorge, and Niagara-on-the-Lake; edited by Bill Goddard; casting: Susan Forest; music: Reg Powell; costume design: Jana Stern; production designer: David Daves; prop-mistress: Cheryl Junkin; hairdresser Rhonda Amcill; armorer: Charlie Taylor; video, stereo, 110 minutes; PG 13; aired Thursday August 27 through Wednesday September 16th.

FILM CREDITS, SYNOPSES, AND ANNOTATED REVIEWS

Player's names were not usually given In early films because film makers felt the identity of artists was unimportant. Later, as the film industry developed, only the star's names were used. Giving credit to all technical and acting personnel came much later. The following cast listings are taken from the sources in the bibliography, hence, some lists of casts may be incomplete.

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THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS
1909 "Leather Stocking"

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Biograph Studios, directed by D. W. Griffith. George O. Nicholls as the Col., Marion Leonard and Linda Arvidson as his nieces, Mack Sennett as Big Serpent, Owen Moore as Leather Stocking, James Kirkwood as the Trapper, William (Billy) A. Quirk, Frank Powell, and Anthony O'Sullivan as soldiers, Guy Hedlund, Arthur Johnson, and Frank Evans as Indians, Edith Haldeman as a child, Adele De Garde, and Verner Clarges. Baker [p. 223] indicated that Henry Walthal's playing Hawkeye and Linda Arvison playing Cora were educated guesses.

Synopsis: Story line has the Col. and his two nieces taking a short cut to Fort George accompanied by a scout and led by the traitorous Indian Big Serpent. When they rest at a mountain stream, Big Serpent and the scout lead the horses in the shade of the wood. The scout returns to tell Leather Stocking and Uncas that he was attacked and that the horses were killed. Leather Stocking and Uncas volunteer to lead the party to the fort. They are almost surrounded by Indians but escape to the stockade where a spirited battle occurs. When only two charges are left to fight the bloodthirsty Indians, Leather Stocking disguises himself as a bear and swims the torturous river at the back of the stockade knowing that the Indians would not waste bullets on game when the enemy is present. He falls exhausted at the soldiers' quarters. The soldiers arrive in the nick of time at the stockade to save the survivors being burned at the stake. Uncas accompanies the party on their way and the film ends with his standing alone on the brow of a hill -- the last of the Mohicans. [The Moving Picture World, Vol. 5, 14 (October 2, 1909), p. 457]

1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel silent

Powers released the movie on August 1st. [filmed much of the plot, but allowed Cora Munro to live]

1911 "The Last of the Mohicans," one reel silent

Directed by Edwin Thanhouser. Released November 10th. [follows closely the original plot, but allowed Cora to live; much of the script was filmed at Lake George, NY: and many ads claimed their film was "punctuated with vistas of scenic beauty."]

1920 "Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking)"

Luna-Film, 12 reels, 73 minutes, directed by Arthur Wellin, filmed in Germany with Emil Memelok as Deerslayer, Bela Lugosi as Uncas, and Herta Heden, Gottfried Kraus, Edward Eyseneck, Margot Sokolowska [released in two parts: "Der Wildtoter (The Deerslayer)," and "Der Letzte Mohikaner (The Last Mohican)"]

1920 "The Last of the Mohicans"

Associated Producers [first film], six reels, silent, directors: Maurice Tourneur and Clarence L. Brown [suffering ptomaine, pleurisy, and falling off a parallel bar kept Tourneur in bed for 3 months hence Brown did much of the direction, but Tourneur scrutinize all the rushes, gave the last word on retakes, and directed most of the studio scenes], screenplay by Robert A. Dillon, shot at Big Bear Lake and Yosemite Valley, CA. Cast included: Harry Lorraine as Hawkeye, Barbara Bedford as Cora Munro, Lillian Hall as Alice, Henry Woodward as Maj. Duncan Heyward, James Gordon as Col. Munro, George Hackathorne as Capt. Randolph, Nelson McDowell as David Gamut, Theodore Lerch as Chingachgook, Jack F. McDonald as Tamenunde, Sydney Deane as Gen. Webb, Albert Roscoe as Uncas, Lou (Lew) Short, Frank Losee, Boris Karloff as a marauding Indian, and Wallace Beery as Magua.

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Synopsis:The film opens with Chingachgook and Uncas looking over the valley below. It cuts to Fort Edward and an interior scene with Cora playing the harp for her beau, the slightly effeminate Capt. Randolph (who was created for the film), Maj. Heyward, and Alice. Uncas arrives at the door with news of enemy movements and then Magua with a message from Col. Munro. Story line has Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas outwitting Magua and his Indians to get the girls to Fort Henry. Following Capt. Randolf's treason and his death (as he hides in an ammunition dump which is blown up), the fort falls. After the massacre Magua pursues and captures Cora and Alice. The last reel contains the climatic trial at the Deleware camp with Talemund. Magua takes Cora into the wilderness. As Cora fights off sleep on the top of the cliff, Magua struggles with her and repeatedly stabs at Cora's arms as she dangles from the edge of the cliff and ultimately falls to her death. Uncas tries to save her but after a gallant struggle is killed and dies reaching for her hand (in the book they both die on the ledge). Hawkeye shoots Magua at the top of the falls and he washes over a waterfall "more than a thousand feet high." The film ends with Chingachgook in silhouette standing vigil by Uncas's grave. The gory scenes of mothers murdered and infants tomahawked were taken from D. W. Griffith's massacre. Stills indicate that the "bear" scene was shot but cut from the film.

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1932 "The Last of the Mohicans"

Mascot Studios, sound [1st sound version of LOM], 12 episode cliffhanger serial directed by Reeves (Breezy) Eas(t)on and Ford Beebe with Yakima Cannutt as actor/stuntman playing Black Fox; starring Harry Carey as Hawk-eye, Hobart Bosworth as the Sagamore (Chingachgook), Robert Kortman as Magua, Junior Coghlin (Frank Coghlan, Jr.) as Uncus [who is portrayed as 13 years old: hence no love entanglements], blond Lucille Browne and dark-haired Edwina Booth as the daughters, Walter Miller as Maj. Heyward, Walter McGrail as Dulac, Nelson McDowell as David Gamut, Edward Hearn as Col. Munro, Mischa Auer as Gen. Montcalm, Chief Big Tree as an Indian, Joan Gale as Red Wing, Tully Marshall as the Courier, Jewel Richford, and Al Cavan. Chapter Titles: 1. Unknown; 2. Flaming Arrows; 3. Rifles or Tomahawks; 4. Riding with Death; 5. Red Shadows; 6. The Lure of Gold; 7. The Crimson Trail; 8. The Tide of Battle; 9. A Redskin's Honor; 10. The Enemy's Stronghold; 11. Paleface Magic; 12. The End of the Trail.

Synopsis:Story line has Cora, Alice, their singing teacher, and Major Heyward journey through enemy territory. Hawkeye, the Mohicans, or various members of the party are captured, killed, blown up, burned, etc. at the end of each chapter. The daughters are captured at least a dozen times by Magua or by Dulac and then rescued. Uncas, his father, and Hawkeye see that justice is done. The Sagamore is killed by Dulac and Uncas performs the rituals befitting the last of the Mohicans. The actors spoke their lines with self-conscious deliberation (as they did in many of the early talkies); the photography was often poor: the fight scene on the cliff in the last episode was shot on a cloudy day and turned out gray and murky; the massacre of the Mohican tribe in the first reel remains a memorable action.

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1936 "The Last of the Mohicans"

United Artists, black and white, sound, an Edward Small production directed by George B. Seitz, 91 minutes. The cast, starring Randolph Scott as Hawk-eye, included Henry Wilcoxon as Maj. Duncan Heyward, Hugh Buckler as Col. Munro, Binnie Barnes as Alice, Heather Angel as Cora, Philip Reed as Uncas, Bruce Cabot as Magua, Robert Barrat as Chingachgook, Willard Robertson as Capt. Winthrop, Frank McGlynn, Sr. as David Gamut, Will Stanton as Jenkins (Heyward's orderly), William V. Mong as Sachem, Olaf Hytten as King George II, Claude King as Duke of Marlborough, Lumsden Hare: Gen. Abercrombie, Reginald Barlow as Duke of Newcastle, Lionel Belmore: Patroon, William Stack: Gen. Montcalm, Art Du Puis: DeLevis, Ian MacLaren: William Pitt, Olaf Hytten: King George II, Lionel Belmore: Patroon, Harry Cording: Trapper, and John Sutton: British Officer.

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Synopsis:Story line has most of the novel's incidents in the film. Scott holds back the Hurons as the others reach the safety of the fort which is subsequently overwhelmed. Scott is captured, tortured, and to be burned at the stake when Wilcoxon (Heyward) arrives with troops to save Scott at the last minute. Hawkeye and Alice and Uncas and Cora fall in love in this version; Magua knocks Uncas off a cliff and Cora, his white lover, jumps after him; Chingachgook kills Magua; and Hawkeye goes to Alice his women. Many of the sets (shot on a sound stage) looked unreal especially the Indian camp. Cora was portrayed as a blond and Alice donned dark-hair. This was the first talkie to feature Indian "grunts and yelps."

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1947 "The Last of the Redmen"

Columbia Pictures, Viticolor, 78 minutes, directed by George Sherman, produced by Sam Katzman. Larry "Buster" Crabbe played Magua, Jon Hall as Maj. Heyward, Evelyn Ankers as Alice Munro, Jacqueline Wells (Julie Bishop) as Cora, Michael O'Shea as Hawk-Eye, Rick Vallin as Uncas, Robert "Buzz" Henry as Davy, Guy Hedlund as Gen. Munro, Frederick Worlock as Gen. Webb, Emmett Vogan as Bob Wheelwright, and Chief Many Treaties.

Synopsis: Story line has Heyward traveling with a British General's two daughters and a 12 year old son (Davy) to Lake George. Magua tells Gen. Webb that the French are attacking from the South. (This scene gives the rational for the daughter's heading for Fort William Henry which is not provided in any other film nor in the book) Hawkeye leads the group after Magua leads them astray. They abandon their horses and baggage and are chased down the river to an island where they hide in a cave. Hawkeye and Uncas go for help, and the group is captured. Hawkeye and Uncas rescue them, and they hide in an abandoned cabin. As they approach the fort, the defeated column is leaving and is attacked by the Indians. Monro is shot; Uncas kills Magua and although mortally wounded rides for help; Alice screams, runs out and is stabbed; the cavalry arrives and saves the survivors; the film ends with Hawkeye standing by Uncas' grave. The scenario took many liberties: Hawkeye talked in a thick Irish brogue; Chingachgook was dropped as a character; Davy was added for juvenile box office draw; danger was more often invited than avoided. The picture's only distinction was that it was in color.

1948 "The Return of the Mohicans"

[the 1932 serial condensed into a feature-length film]

1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"

Thirty-nine [30 minute] episodes; syndicated TV series (Fall 1957-Summer 1958), directed by Sam Neufield and Sidney Salkow; producer: Sigmund Neufeld; writers: Andre Boehm, Louis Vittes; made-in-Canada telefilm with John Hart as Nat Cutter [Hawkeye], Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, Michael Ansara as Ogana, Lili Fontaine as Marion, Dave Garner as Tommy Cutter (Hawkeye's brother), and John Vernon.

Synopsis: Story line is about the founding and growth of America in the 1750"s as seen through the adventures of U. S. Cavalry Scouts Nat Cutter [Hawkeye] and Chingachgook as they help pioneers battle the Huron uprisings.

1962 Four TV Movies

International Television Corporation, distributed to TV four TV movies: "Along the Mohawk Trail," "The Red Man and the Renegades," "The Long Rifle and the Tomahawk," and "The Pathfinder and the Mohican" based on the 1957 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans" television series; John Hart played Hawkeye, Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, and Angela Fusco.

1964 "The Pathfinder and the Mohican"

90 minute, black & white telefeature, directed by Sam Newfield with Jon Hall, Lon Chaney, Jr., Jonathan White, Angela Fusco, and Larry Solway.

Synopsis: Story line has Delaware Indians falsely accused of various crimes against settlers. Hawkeye and Chingachgook attempt to prove the truth.

1965 "Der Letzte Mohikaner"

[The Last of the Mohicans] German-Italian-Spanish independent production; released by International Germania Film; 90 minutes (West Germany); directed by Harald Reinl; camera: Ernst Kalinke; music: Peter Thomas; with Italian Western star Anthony Steffen (Antonio De Teffe) as "Strongheart" (Leatherstocking), Dan Martín as the Last of the Mohicans (Unkas), Carl Lange as Col. Munroe, Karin Dor as Cora, Marie France as Alice Munroe, Joachim Fuchsberger as Maj. Hayward and Ricardo Rodriguez, Stelio Candelli, Kurt Grobkurth, and Angel Ter.

Synopsis: "Sauerkraut Western" story based on the Leatherstocking Tales: De Teffe and Martin save Lange and his two daughters: Karin Dor and Marie France]

1965 "Uncas, el fin de una raza"

[Uncas, the End of a Race], Ital Caribe Cinematografica (Spain/Italy), 85 minutes; directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora. Cast included: Jack Taylor as Duncan Heywood, Luis Induni as Hawkeye, Dan Martin as Lucan, Paul Muller as Col. Munro, Sara Lezana, Barbara Loy, José Manuel Martin, Pastor Serrador.

1969 "Die Lederstrumpferzaählungen"

[The Leatherstocking Tales] Mini TV series, color, language: French; directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit; cast; Hellmut Lange as Natty Bumppo, Pierre Massimi as Chingagook, Alexandru David as Unkas, Sophie Agacinski as Judith Hutter, Otto Ambros as Oberst (Col.)Munro, Robert Benoit as Paul Hover, Jack Brunet as Duncan Heyward, J.P. Compain as Weucha, Marc Cottel as Tamenund, George Demetru as Ismael Bush, Ion Dischiseanu as Mathoree, Christian Duroc as Jasper, G. Florin as Kawano, Roland Ganemet as David Gamut, Gabriel Bason as Dr. Battius, Loumi Lacobesco as Cora, Catherine Jourdan as Ellen Wade, Jackie Lombard as Wah-ta-wah, Sylvie Maas-Lebot as Alice, Victoria Medea as Esther Bush, Charles Moulin as Muir, Mircea Pascu as Abiram Bush, Patrick Peuvion as Harry March, Ali Raffi as Magua, Colea Rautu as Gespaltene Eiche (Split Oak), Helmuth Schneider as Miles Forman, Czach Szabolcs as Pfeilspitze (Arrowpoint), Juliette Villard as Mable, and Thekla Carola Wied as Hetty Hutter.

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1969 "Ultimul Mohican"

[The Last of the Mohicans] (Romania), directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu. Cast: Hellmut Lange, Pierre Massimi, Alexandru David, Sybil Mass, Otto Ambros, Luminita Labescu, and Jacques Brinet.

1971 "Last of the Mohicans"

BBC-TV, directed by David Maloney, produced by John McRae, written by Harry Green, 8 episodes (45 minutes), filmed in the Scottish Highlands with Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas, and Philip Madoc as Magua, Joanna David as Alice Munroe, Patricia Maynard as Cora Munroe, . [fairly faithful to Fenimore Cooper novel]

1972 "The Last of the Mohicans"

WNET Masterpiece Theater, BBC Television eight-part serial, filmed in the Scottish Highhlands with Alistair Cooke as host. Tim Goodman played Heyward, Philip Madoc as Magua, Patricia Maynard as Cora, Joanna David as Alice, Andrew Crawford as Col. Munro, Noel Coleman as Gen. Webb, Prentis Hancock as Grant, David Leland as David Gamut, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas and Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye.

Synopsis:Story line has Heyward at Fort Edward requesting aid for Munro. Magua leads the girls, Heyward, and another soldier into an ambush. Hawkeye leads the survivors to an island cave. After a fight, the Indians capture the girls and Heyward. Hawkeye has gone for help. Hawkeye and the Mohicans helped by Gamut rescue the group and barely get them to the fort. Hawkeye and the Mohicans are captured, tortured, and saved by Montcalm. The final scene at a waterfall has Uncas jumping down (and missing) Magua who kills him; another Indian stabs Cora; Magua kills him and fights Chingachgook. Magua is thrown down the waterfall. Cora and Uncas are buried, and Hawkeye proclaims his friendship to Chingachgook. They depart together.

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1973 "Hawkeye, The Pathfinder"

20th Century Fox TV and ABC TV, produced by John McRae, directed by David Maloney, dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell, five part serial (55 min. episodes) with Paul Massie as Hawkeye and John Abinieri as Chingachgook. [produced 1-18/11-16/12/1973]

1977 "Last of the Mohicans"

Shick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 100 minutes [when syndicated: 90 minutes], directed by James L. Conway, producer: Robert Stambler, teleplay: Stephen Lord. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook, Andrew Prine as Maj. Heyward, Don Shanks as Uncas, Robert Tessier as Magua, Jane Actman as Alice Morgan, Michele March as Cora, Robert Easton as David Gamut, Whit Bissell as Gen. Webb, with Dehl Berti, John G. Bishop, Beverly Rowland, Rosalyn Mike, Reid Sorenson, and Coleman Lord.

Synopsis: Story line has Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas helping Maj. Heyward escort Cora and Alice to their father. Magua and his Huron warriors are the determents. The group is captured and saved. There are long fight scenes and a chase on the lake. At Tamenund's village Cora is given to Magua who takes her to a high promontory. The rescuers arrive. Chingachgook kills Magua in hand-to-hand combat after Uncas, sacrificing himself to save Cora, is shot by Magua. There are no scenes of the surrender at the fort nor of the massacre; Cora is permitted to live, but David Gamut is killed.

1977 "The Last of the Mohicans"

Full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, 1988, 1976; 1 videocassette (49 min.), sound/color, ½ inch format; adaptation: Lewis Draper; animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington; camera: Jan Cregan; voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, and Frank Welker.

Synopsis: Story line has Magua leading the girls and Heyward. They meet Hawkeye, Uncas and Chingachgook on the trail. Uncas chases Magua away. They leave the horses and enter canoes. Stopping at an island for the night, they stay in a cave. Chingachgook gives Alice his necklace. Hawkeye and Uncas swim for help. Alice has a little dog (Pip) which yips, and they are captured. Hawkeye and Uncas to the rescue. Chingachgook and Magua plunge over a cliff. Arriving at the fort they find it burned and empty. That night Uncas and the two girls are captured. Uncas and Alice are saved from the stake by the necklace Alice is wearing. Hawkeye, Heyward, and Cora run from Magua and his Indians, but Uncas and the Delawares put the Indians to route. At Fort Ticonderoga, Munro greets his daughters, Hawkeye and Uncas. Hawkeye returns to the woods. Uncas, the last of the Mohicans, leaves to find other Mohicans and build a tribe. Alice and Pip run after him, and they all ride off together.

1987 "The Last of the Mohicans"

Videorecording, Burbank Films Australia, Northbrook, IL: Film Ideas, 1987, 1 videocassette (50 minutes) sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [animated; music: Simon Walker; screenplay: Leonard Lee]

Synopsis: Story line has Chingachgook and Uncas surrounded by Hurons. His father is killed, but Uncas is saved by Hawkeye. Magua leads Heyward and the girls; they rest for the night; Hawkeye catches Heyward off guard; tell the truth about Magua. Next day they set off; Hawkeye scouting ahead; party is captured again; Hawkeye saves party. Raft takes them to cave; Hawkeye and Uncas go for help; party is captured; Uncas asks Tamenund for help; they capture Magua and prisoners; Magua slips away and they get to the fort. Capt. Washington wants to surrender and fight another day and Munro agrees. The women leave and are captured. Uncas and Hawkeye are captured; all are to be burned at the stake. Tamenund arrives; Magua and Uncas fight high on a cliff; Magua fall to his death. Montcalm's troops save them. Tamenund admonishes Uncas and Hawkeye to work for peace between peoples.

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1992 "Last of the Mohicans"

20th Century Fox, Michael Mann, Director, Rated R. Screenplay by M. Mann and Christopher Crowe also based on 1936 United Artists' version by Philip Dunne. Cast: Daniel Day-Lewis played Hawkeye (Nathaniel Poe), Madeleine Stowe as Cora Munro, Jodhi May as Alice Munro, Eric Schweig as Uncas, Steven Waddington as Maj. Heyward, Russell Means as Chingachgook, Cherokee actor Wes Studi as Magua, Maurice Roëves as Col. Munro, Patrice Chereau as Gen. Montcalm, Terry Kiney as John Cameron, Justin M. Rice as James Cameron, Tracey Ellis as Alexandra Cameron, Edward Blatchford as Jack Winthrop, American Indian Movement co-founder Dennis Banks in a small part as Ongewasgone, Pete Postlethwaite as Capt. Beams, Colm Meaney as Maj. Ambrose, Mac Andrews as Gen. Webb, Malcom Storry as Phelps, David Schofield as Sgt. Maj., Eric Sandgren as Coureuu de Bois, Mike Phillips as Sachem, Mark Baker as Colonial Man, Dylan Baker as Bougainville, Tim Hopper as Ian, Gregory Zaragoza as Abenaki Chief, Scott Means as Abenaki Warrior, William Bozic, Jr. As French Artillery officer, Patrick Fitzgerald as Webb's Adjutant, Mark Joy as Henri, Steve Keator as Colonial Representative, Don Tilley as 1st Colonial, Thomas Cummings as 2nd Colonial, David Farrow as Guard, Ethan Fugate as French Sappeur, F. Curtis Gaston as 1st Soldier, Eric A. Hurley as 2nd Soldier, Jared Harris as British Lt., Michael McConnel as Sentry, Thomas McGowan as the Rich Merchant, Alice Papineau as Huron Woman, Mark Maracle as Sharitarish, Clark Heathcliffe as Regimental Sgt. Maj., Sebastian Roche as Martin, Joe Finnegan as 2nd Redcoat, and Sheila Barhill as the Humming Woman.

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Synopsis: Story line has Cora and Alice escorted by Duncan Heyward to the Fort under siege by the French. An ambush leaves the trio unprotected and Hawkeye, his adopted father and brother lead them to the Fort. Hawkeye and Maj. Heyward love Cora, and Uncas loves Alice. After the fall of the Fort and the massacre comes the chase and capture. At the Indian encampment, Heyward offers his life for the girls [preempting Hawkeye's offer], and Magua leaves with Alice. Hawkeye shoots the screaming Heyward as he is being burned to death. There is an action packed finale on a majestic ridge where Alice commits suicide rather than be with Magua; Uncas tries to avenge her death, but is killed by Magua; and Chingachgook revenges his son by killing Magua.

James Fenimore Cooper did not predict that his book would become a classic, but time has proven its endurance. Michael Mann's expressed great confidence in his film when he commented, "It's going to be a classic." History will determine the enduring appellation. To date reviews of the film have not yet bestowed classic status upon the forty million dollar plus movie version.

The largest movie set ever built east of the Mississippi was the six million dollar reconstruction of Fort William Henry. On a bluff overlooking Lake James, between Marion and Morganton North Carolina, the 160,000 square foot fort was a virtual museum of frontier America. Medicine jars of the period, blackened cooking pots, and stacked muskets attested to the attention paid to historical accuracy. Most of the props: handmade uniforms and shoes, birchbark canoes, and woven baskets were made by local craftspeople.

Mr. Mann felt that Linville Gorge gave him the perfect backdrop for shooting scenes in the wilderness of 18th century New York. The rugged country challenged the construction crews. Moving heavy equipment and hundreds of cast members in the mountains only to be rained out or to have the director change his mind proved to be frustrating and costly. The company closed out its 6 month filming in the mountains six weeks behind schedule due to heavy rains throughout the summer of 1991. Cost over runs of $20,000 an hour during shooting were not uncommon. By October the budget had exceeded forty million dollars. When the film was completed, the production company was required by law to restore the area.

Mann fired his first cinematographer and the costume designer. The hair stylist quit. The film was plagued by nearly a dozen wildcat work stoppages: initially by American Indians (Russell Means helped negotiate improved working conditions and exempts Mann from any blame for the problems) and then by local extras. The 2000 extras protested poor pay, and wanted better working and living conditions. Director Mann was quoted as saying that laying "dead" on the damp and rocky ground for hours without breaks for multiple retakes was normal on location shooting. Extras outside of Hollywood "don't know what to expect." North Carolina's right-to-work law, permits non-union employees to work for a company that has a union contract. The result of making the film in NC rather that in NY or CA saved the production company a small fortune. Rather than paying union wages and benefits, local workers had to individually negotiate with the company. The company kept individual contracts secret, and no one knew [unless employees shared with each other] what anyone else was earning. Pay ranged from $4 to $15 a hour. Housing, quality of meals, and transportation also varied with negotiation.

American, French, and Iroquois-Delaware were used for dialogue in the film.

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1994 "Hawkeye: The First Frontier"

Sky TV, Britain; Stephen J. Cannell Production; created and written by Kim LeMasters; filmed around Vancouver, Canada; music: Joel Goldsmith; photography: Benton Spencer; editors: Lynne Willingham and Chris G. Willingham; executive producers: David Levinson. Cast included: Lee Horsley as Hawkeye, Rodney A. Grant as Chingachgook, Lynda Carter as Elizabeth Shields, Garwin Sanford as Capt. Taylor Shields, Lochlyn Munro as McKinney, and Jed Rees as Peevey [McKinney and Rees were two teenagers who worked in the store for Elizabeth], and occasionally Duncan Fraser as Col. Munro. [aired in Britain in April; pilot episode:9 -14 & 9 -21- 94]

Synopsis: Story revolves around a fort in 1775. Elizabeth Shields' corrupt brother-in-law [second in command] gets her husband Samuel captured by the Hurons. Hawkeye and Chingachgook visit the fort. Each episode explores life on the frontier, the thuggish Huron Indians, the machinations of the arrogant Taylor, and the developing relationship between Hawkeye and Elizabeth.

THE DEERSLAYER
1911 "The Deerslayer"

Vitagraph production starring Hal Reid and his son (William) Wallace Reid playing a muscular Chingachgook, with Harry T. Morey as the Deerslayer, Ethel Dunne as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Florence E. Turner as Hetty Hunter, and William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak.

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1913 "The Deerslayer"

Two reels, Vitagraph production directed by Hal Reid starring Florence E. Turner (Vitagraph's great first dramatic star known as "The Vitagraph Girl") as Hetty Hunter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Harry T. Morey as The Deerslayer, Ethel Dunn as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak, and (William) Wallace Reid as Chingachgook. [remake/release of the 1911 Vitagraph film]

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1923 "The Deerslayer"

Cameo Distributing, 60 minutes, black and white, director: Arthur Wellin, screenplay: Robert Heymann, with Emil Mamelok, Bela Lugosi, Herta Heden, Gottfried Kraus, Edward Eyseneck, and Margot Sokolowska.

Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and his Indian blood brother Chingachgook aid British settlers harassed by the French and Indians in upper New York state.

1924 "Leatherstocking"

Pathé Exchange, directed by George B. Seitz with Harold Miller as Leatherstocking; Edna Murphy as Judith Hutter; Lillian Hall as Hetty, Judith's sister; Whitehorse as "Floating Tom Hutter;" David Dunbar as Chingachgook; Frank Lackteen as Briarthorn, and Lou Short. [a ten chapter motion picture serial of The Deerslayer; Chapter Titles: 1. The Warpath; 2. The Scarlet Trail; 3. The Hawk's Eyes [copyright: 20 Feb. 1924]; 4. The Paleface Law; 5. Ransom; 6. The Betrayal; 7. Rivenoak's Revenge; 8. Out of the Storm; 9. The Panther [copyright: 18 April 1924]; and Chapter 10. Mingo Torture [copyright: 24 April 1924]; publicity claimed the episodes were based on The Deerslayer, but reviewers didn't think so]

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1943 "The Deerslayer"

Republic Pictures, produced by P. S. Harrison and E. B. Derr, directed by Lew Landers and starring Bruce Kellogg as Deerslayer with Yvonne De Carlo as Wah-Tah-Wah, Adddison Richards as Tom Hutter, Jean Parker as Judith, Wanda McKay as Hetty, Warren Ashe as Harry March, Phil Van Zandt as Briarthorn, Johnny Michaels as Bobby Hunter, Larry Parks as Jingo-Good, Trevor Bardette as Chief Rivenoak, Robert Warwick as Uncas, Chief Many Treaties as Chief Brave Eagle, Princess Whynemak as Duenna, Clancy Cooper as Mr. Barlow, and William Edmund as the Huron Sub-Chief.

Synopsis:Story has Kellogg aiding Jean Parker and her party of settlers who are caught in the middle of an Indian war. An Indian princess, Yvonne De Carlo who is promised to a young brave (Larry Parks) is kidnapped by a Huron tribe rival (Philip Van Zandt as Briarthron) who also burns the tribe's village. Deerslayer Kellogg leads his tribe in defeating the Hurons and of course, rescuing the princess. Settings shot on location are excellent, Hutter's Castle was built in the center of a lake; the acting good, and the plot and characterizations nearly faithful to the original; exceptions: old Hutter has a son Bobby who is shot by Hurons early in the film; Hetty Hutter feigned madness (a cinematic technique often used to get Indians to believe that the person is possessed by the gods); and Judith Hutter rejects Deerslayer in favor of his friend Harry March. Kellogg played Deerslayer well, Larry Parks was too stiff as Chingachgook; Jean Parker was too troubled as Judith; Wanda McKay was excellent as Hetty, and Yvonne DeCarlo was bewitching as Wah-Tah-Wah.

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1956 "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans"

39 episode (30 minutes each) syndicated TV series, directed by Sam Newfield; produced by Sigmund Neufeld, with John Hart as Hawkeye and Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook. [made-in-Canada telefilm; four telefeatures were made from this serial: "Along the Mohawk Trail;" "The Long Rifle;" "The Pathfinder and the Mohican;" and "The Redmen and the Renegades"]

1957 "The Deerslayer"

Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, color, 76 minutes, directed and produced by Kurt Neumann, filmed at Bass Lake in the High Sierras. Lex Barker played the Deerslayer with Rita Moreno as Hetty Hutter, Forrest Tucker as Harry March, Jay C. Flippin as Tom Hutter, Cathy O'Donnell as Judith Hutter, Carlos Rivas as Chingachgook, John Halloran as Old Warrior, Joseph Vitale as chief of the Hurons, stunts: Rocky Shahan, Phil Schumacker, George Robotham, and Carol Henry.

Synopsis: Story, loosely based on Cooper's novel, has Deerslayer and Chinghachgook trying to avert and Indian war. Tom Hutter and his two daughters have been living on an island fort. He has been taking Huron scalps for years and the Indians want revenge. Rita Moreno, who played Hetty Hutter and Wah-Ta-Wah combined into one character, was a Huron baby adopted by Hutter. She returns to her tribe after her father is killed. Briarthorn was omitted.

1969 "Vinatorul de cerbi"

[Blame the Stag] (Romania), directed by Jean Dreville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergiu Nicolaescu.

1978 "The Deerslayer"

Motion picture, Classics Illustrated, 90 minutes, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels (87 minutes), sound/color, 16 mm. Produced by Bill Conford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer. [because of release date (18 December 1978) this is probably the same film as the 1979 SCHICK SUNN production cited below]

1979 "The Deerslayer"

Schick Sunn Classics/ NBC-TV, color, 104 minutes, directed by Dick Friedenberg, teleplay: S. S. Schweitzer. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook [a repeat of their roles in the 1977 "Last of the Mohicans"], John Anderson as Hutter, Joan Prather as Judith Hutter, Madeline Stowe as Hetty Hunter, Victor Mohica as Chief Rivenoak, Charles Dierkop as Hurry Harry March, Brian Davies as Lt. Plowden, Ted Hamilton as Sieur de Beaujour, Ruben Moreno as Tamenund, Betty Ann Carr as Wa-Wa-Ta, and Alma Beltran, Rosa Maria Hudson, Andrew William Lewis, Stephen Craig Taylor.

Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and Chingachgook help Chief Rivenoak get his kidnapped daughter back from a rival tribe.

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THE PATHFINDER
1911 "The Pathfinder"

Directed by Laurence Trimble with Wallace Reid.

1952 "The Pathfinder"

Columbia Pictures, technicolor, 78 minutes; directed by Sidney Salkow; screenwriter: Robert E. Kent; starring George Montgomery as Pathfinder aided by Jay Silverheels (a Mohawk Indian) as Chingachgook, Ed Coch, Jr. as Uncas, Helena Carter as Welcome Alison, Rodd Redwing as Chief Arrowhead is the leader of the hostile Mingos, Elena Verdugo plays Lokawa the wife of a British soldier, Chief Yowlachie as Eagle Feather, Russ Conklin as Togamak, Vi Ingraham as Ka-Letan, Adele St. Maur as the matron, Bruce Lester as Capt. Bradford, Stephen Bekassy as Col. Brasseau, and Walter Kingsford as Col. Duncannon.

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Synopsis Story has British troops rescue captured British scout Montgomery, masquerading as a French scout, and his interpreter Carter who are about to face a French firing squad at St. Vincente, 1754. Neither Uncas nor Chingachgook die. Montgomery ends up with Carter. Chingachgook informs the Pathfinder that Carter is "much better than horse."

1973 "Hawkeye, The Pathfinder"

BBC in co-production with 20th Century Fox TV and ABC TV; producer: John McRae; director: David Maloney Century Theatre; Five part [55 minutes each] serial dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell; Hawkeye: Paul Massie; Chingachgook: John Abineri. [Erickson, p. 260; Vahimagi, p. 197]

1987 "Sledopyt"

[Pathfinder] (Russian), color, 91 minutes, adapted and directed by: Pavel Lyubimov; cinematography: Anatoli Grishko; music: Yuri Saulsky. Cast: Yuri Avsharov, Andris Zagars, Anastasiya Nemolyayeva, Emmanuil Vitorgan, Andrei Mironov, and other minor players.

1996 "Pathfinder"

Producer: John Danylkiw; director: Donald Shebib, Cast: Kevin Dillon as Natty Bumppo, Michael Hogan as Cap; Graham Green as Chingachcook, Jaimz Woolvett as Jasper Weston, Russell Means as Arrowhead, Charles Powell as Lt. Zale, Ralph Kussman as guard on ship, Stacy Keach as Compte du Leon a pompous French general, Laurie Holden as Mable Dunham with Dan MacDonald, Stephen Russell, Michelle St. John, Lawrence Boyne. and Bermard Behrens.

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THE PRAIRIE
1947 "The Prairie"

Screen Guild, black and white, 68 minutes, directed by Frank Wisbar (Franz Wysbar); screenplay: Arthur St. Clare. Cast: Alan Baxter as Paul Hover, Lenore Aubert as Ellen Wade, Russ Vincent as Abiram White, Jack Mitchum as Asa Bush, Charles Evans as Ishmael Bush, Edna Holland a Esther Bush, Fred Coby as Abner Bush, Bill Murphy as Jess Bush, David Gerber as Gabe Bush, Don Lynch as Enoch Bush, George Morrell as Luke, Beth Taylor as Annie Morris, Chief Yowlachie as Mahtoree, Chief Thunder Cloud as Eagle Feather, Jay Silverheels as Running Deer and Frank Hemmingway the Commentary.

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THE PIONEERS
1941 "The Pioneers"

Monogram Pictures, black and white, 59 minutes; directed by Al Herman; screenplay: Charles Anderson. Cast: Tex Ritter as Tex, Arkansas `Slim' Andrews as Slim; Red Foley as Red; Doye O'Deil as Doye; Wanda McKay as Suzanna; George Chesbro as Wilson; Del Lawrence as Ames; Post Park as Benton; Karl Hackett as Carson; Lynton Brent as Jingo; Chick Hannon as Pete; Gene Alsace as Sheriff; Jack C. Smith as Judge; Chief Many Treaties as Warcloud; Chief Soldani as Lonedeer; Red Foley's Saddle Pals; and White Flash the Horse.

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Synopsis: Story line has Ritter and mule-riding ["imagine pursuing, or being pursued by scalp-hot Injuns -- aboard a mule."] sidekick Andrews are hired to protect a wagon train. A gang of villains stir up the Indians to keep Ritter busy. Cooper's name appeared in the credits and the press book advised exhibitors to arrange with their local libraries for special displays of "Cooper's popular works;" but no character in the film was taken from the book, no dialogue, and no incidents resembled Cooper's plot. The film consisted largely of stock footage: the Indian attack was taken from the 1933 Mascot serial "Fighting with Kit Carson" and used again by Finney in "Buffalo Bill in Tomahawk Territory."

THE SPY
1914 "The Spy"

Universal, silent, black and white, directed by Otis Turner; screenwriter: James Dayton. Cast included Herbert Rawlinson as Harvey Birch (the spy), Edna Maison as Katrie his sweetheart, Ella Hall as Frances Wharton, William Worthington as Gen. Washington, Edward Alexander as Maj. Dunwoodie, Rex De Rosselli as Mr. Wharton, J. W. Pike and his son Henry, and Frank Lloyd as Jake Parsons.

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Synopsis: Story line has Birch allowing himself to be arrested so he can be questioned by Washington; Washington allows him to escape; Maj. Dunwoodie offers a reward; Henry, a British officer, comes to bid his family goodbye and is allowed safe passage because of the intent of his visit; Maj. Dunwoodie must arrest him as a traitor when he is found in an American uniform; Birch, disguised as a minister, changes clothes with Henry; Birch does not use the letter to save himself, but at the last moment the Gen. arrives and orders a search which reveals Birch's innocence.

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AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA

The Deerslayer
Leatherstocking Tales

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Last of the Redmen

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The Spy

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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